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Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Immunogenetic factors driving formation of ultralong VH CDR3 in Bos taurus antibodies.

The antibody repertoire of Bos taurus is characterized by a subset of variable heavy (VH) chain regions with ultralong third complementarity determining regions (CDR3) which, compared to other species, can provide a potent response to challenging antigens like HIV env. These unusual CDR3 can range to over seventy highly diverse amino acids in length and form unique ß-ribbon ‘stalk’ and disulfide bonded ‘knob’ structures, far from the typical antigen binding site. The genetic components and processes for forming these unusual cattle antibody VH CDR3 are not well understood. Here we analyze sequences of Bos taurus antibody VH domains and find…

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Sunday, September 22, 2019

Application of circular consensus sequencing and network analysis to characterize the bovine IgG repertoire.

Vertebrate immune systems generate diverse repertoires of antibodies capable of mediating response to a variety of antigens. Next generation sequencing methods provide unique approaches to a number of immuno-based research areas including antibody discovery and engineering, disease surveillance, and host immune response to vaccines. In particular, single-molecule circular consensus sequencing permits the sequencing of antibody repertoires at previously unattainable depths of coverage and accuracy. We approached the bovine immunoglobulin G (IgG) repertoire with the objective of characterizing diversity of expressed IgG transcripts. Here we present single-molecule real-time sequencing data of expressed IgG heavy-chain repertoires of four individual cattle. We describe…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle.

Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or “pinkeye” in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine cases and four from the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle. Isolates that originated from the eyes of IBK cases profoundly differed from those that originated from the nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle in genome structure, gene content and polymorphism diversity and consequently placed into two distinct phylogenetic groups. These results suggest that there are genetically distinct strains of M.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete closed genome sequences of a Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 leukotoxin deletion mutant and its wild-type parent strain.

Mannheimia haemolytica is a bacterial pathogen that secretes leukotoxin (LktA) which binds to leukocyte membranes via CD18, causing bacterial pneumonia in ruminants. We report the complete closed genome sequences of a leukotoxin mutant and its parent strain that are frequently used in respiratory disease studies. Copyright © 2015 Heaton et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics and characterization of hybrid Shigatoxigenic and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC/ETEC) strains.

Shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) cause serious foodborne infections in humans. These two pathogroups are defined based on the pathogroup-associated virulence genes: stx encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) for STEC and elt encoding heat-labile and/or est encoding heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) for ETEC. The study investigated the genomics of STEC/ETEC hybrid strains to determine their phylogenetic position among E. coli and to define the virulence genes they harbor.The whole genomes of three STEC/ETEC strains possessing both stx and est genes were sequenced using PacBio RS sequencer. Two of the strains were isolated from the patients, one with hemolytic…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Bovine NK-lysin: Copy number variation and functional diversification.

NK-lysin is an antimicrobial peptide and effector protein in the host innate immune system. It is coded by a single gene in humans and most other mammalian species. In this study, we provide evidence for the existence of four NK-lysin genes in a repetitive region on cattle chromosome 11. The NK2A, NK2B, and NK2C genes are tandemly arrayed as three copies in ~30-35-kb segments, located 41.8 kb upstream of NK1. All four genes are functional, albeit with differential tissue expression. NK1, NK2A, and NK2B exhibited the highest expression in intestine Peyer’s patch, whereas NK2C was expressed almost exclusively in lung.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete closed genome sequences of three Bibersteinia trehalosi nasopharyngeal isolates from cattle with shipping fever.

Bibersteinia trehalosi is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. B. trehalosi is closely related to Mannheimia haemolytica and is often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease. We present three complete closed genome sequences of this species generated using an automated assembly pipeline.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Inconsistency of phenotypic and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter fetus subspecies requires reevaluation of current diagnostics.

Classifications of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis were first described in 1959 and were based on the source of isolation (intestinal versus genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in the genital tract of cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and H2S production) were described to differentiate the subspecies. Multiple molecular assays have been applied to differentiate the C. fetus subspecies, but none of these tests is consistent with the phenotypic identification methods. In this study, we defined the core genome and accessory genes of C. fetus, which are based on the closed genomes of…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete closed genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes A1 and A6, isolated from cattle.

Mannheimia haemolytica is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. M. haemolytica is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease. We present the first two complete closed genome sequences of this species, determined using an automated assembly pipeline requiring no manual finishing.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Updated reference genome sequence and annotation of Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97.

We report here an update to the reference genome sequence of the bovine tuberculosis bacillus Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97, generated using an integrative multiomics approach. The update includes 42 new coding sequences (CDSs), 14 modified annotations, 26 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) corrections, and disclosure that the RD900 locus, previously described as absent from the genome, is in fact present. Copyright © 2017 Malone et al.

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