July 19, 2019  |  

The history of Bordetella pertussis genome evolution includes structural rearrangement.

Despite high pertussis vaccine coverage, reported cases of whooping cough (pertussis) have increased over the last decade in the United States and other developed countries. Although Bordetella pertussis is well known for its limited gene sequence variation, recent advances in long-read sequencing technology have begun to reveal genomic structural heterogeneity among otherwise indistinguishable isolates, even within geographically or temporally defined epidemics. We have compared rearrangements among complete genome assemblies from 257 B. pertussis isolates to examine the potential evolution of the chromosomal structure in a pathogen with minimal gene nucleotide sequence diversity. Discrete changes in gene order were identified that differentiated genomes from vaccine reference strains and clinical isolates of various genotypes, frequently along phylogenetic boundaries defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The observed rearrangements were primarily large inversions centered on the replication origin or terminus and flanked by IS481, a mobile genetic element with >240 copies per genome and previously suspected to mediate rearrangements and deletions by homologous recombination. These data illustrate that structural genome evolution in B. pertussis is not limited to reduction but also includes rearrangement. Therefore, although genomes of clinical isolates are structurally diverse, specific changes in gene order are conserved, perhaps due to positive selection, providing novel information for investigating disease resurgence and molecular epidemiology.IMPORTANCE Whooping cough, primarily caused by Bordetella pertussis, has resurged in the United States even though the coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines remains high. The rise in reported cases has included increased disease rates among all vaccinated age groups, provoking questions about the pathogen’s evolution. The chromosome of B. pertussis includes a large number of repetitive mobile genetic elements that obstruct genome analysis. However, these mobile elements facilitate large rearrangements that alter the order and orientation of essential protein-encoding genes, which otherwise exhibit little nucleotide sequence diversity. By comparing the complete genome assemblies from 257 isolates, we show that specific rearrangements have been conserved throughout recent evolutionary history, perhaps by eliciting changes in gene expression, which may also provide useful information for molecular epidemiology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Bordetella pertussis Pelita III, the production strain for an Indonesian whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

PT Bio Farma, the sole World Health Organization-approved Indonesian vaccine producer, manufactures a whole-cell whooping cough vaccine (wP) that, as part of a pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis/hepatitis B/Haemophilus influenzae b (DTP/HB/Hib) vaccine, is used in Indonesia and many other countries. We report here the whole-genome sequence for Bordetella pertussis Pelita III, PT Bio Farma’s wP production strain. Copyright © 2017 Efendi et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequence of Bordetella pertussis strain VA-190 isolated from a vaccinated 10-year-old patient with whooping cough.

The number of cases of pertussis has increased in the United States despite vaccination. We present the genome of an isolate of Bordetella pertussis from a vaccinated patient from Virginia. The genome was sequenced by long-read methodology and compared to that of a clinical isolate used for laboratory studies, D420. Copyright © 2016 Eby et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Complete genome sequences of four different Bordetella sp. isolates causing human respiratory infections.

Species of the genus Bordetella associate with various animal hosts, frequently causing respiratory disease. Bordetella pertussis is the primary agent of whooping cough and other Bordetella species can cause similar cough illness. Here, we report four complete genome sequences from isolates of different Bordetella species recovered from human respiratory infections. Copyright © 2016 Weigand et al.

July 7, 2019  |  

Highlights of the 11th International Bordetella Symposium: from basic biology to vaccine development.

Pertussis is a severe respiratory disease caused by infection with the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis The disease affects individuals of all ages but is particularly severe and sometimes fatal in unvaccinated young infants. Other Bordetella species cause diseases in humans, animals, and birds. Scientific, clinical, public health, vaccine company, and regulatory agency experts on these pathogens and diseases gathered in Buenos Aires, Argentina from 5 to 8 April 2016 for the 11th International Bordetella Symposium to discuss recent advances in our understanding of the biology of these organisms, the diseases they cause, and the development of new vaccines and other strategies to prevent these diseases. Highlights of the meeting included pertussis epidemiology in developing nations, genomic analysis of Bordetella biology and evolution, regulation of virulence factor expression, new model systems to study Bordetella biology and disease, effects of different vaccines on immune responses, maternal immunization as a strategy to prevent newborn disease, and novel vaccine development for pertussis. In addition, the group approved the formation of an International Bordetella Society to promote research and information exchange on bordetellae and to organize future meetings. A new website will also be developed to facilitate these goals. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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