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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequences of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni strain 14980A (turkey feces) and Campylobacter coli strain 14983A (housefly from a turkey farm), harboring a novel gentamicin resistance mobile element.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) in foodborne pathogens is a major food safety and public health issue. Here we describe whole-genome sequences of two MDR strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from turkey feces and a housefly from a turkey farm. Both strains harbor a novel chromosomal gentamicin resistance mobile element. Copyright © 2016 Miller et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Key experimental evidence of chromosomal DNA transfer among selected tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major driving force of bacterial diversification and evolution. For tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, the impact of HGT in the emergence and distribution of dominant lineages remains a matter of debate. Here, by using fluorescence-assisted mating assays and whole genome sequencing, we present unique experimental evidence of chromosomal DNA transfer between tubercle bacilli of the early-branching Mycobacterium canettii clade. We found that the obtained recombinants had received multiple donor-derived DNA fragments in the size range of 100 bp to 118 kbp, fragments large enough to contain whole operons. Although the transfer frequency between M. canettii strains was…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Genome and plasmid analysis of blaIMP-4 -carrying Citrobacter freundii B38.

Sequencing of the blaIMP-4 -carrying C. freundii B38 using PacBio SMRT technique revealed that the genome contained a chromosome of 5,134,500 bp, and three plasmids, pOZ172 (127,005 bp), pOZ181 (277,592 bp), and pOZ182 (18,467 bp). Plasmid pOZ172 was identified as IncFIIY, like pP10164-NDM and pNDM-EcGN174. It carries a class 1 integron with four cassettes: blaIMP-4-qacG2-aacA4-aphA15, and a complete hybrid tni module (tniR-tniQ-tniB-tniA). The recombination of tniR from Tn402 (identical) with tniQBA (99%) from Tn5053 occurred within the res site of Tn402/5053. The Tn402/5053-like integron, named Tn6017, was inserted into Tn1722 at the res II site. The replication, partitioning and transfer…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Recent “omics” advances in Helicobacter pylori.

The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori “omics” and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Diversity of the tetracycline mobilome within a Chinese pig manure sample.

Tetracycline antibiotics are widely used in livestock, and tetracycline resistance genes (TRG) are frequently reported in the manure of farmed animals. However, the diversity of TRG-carrying transposons in manure has still been rarely investigated. Using a culture-free functional metagenomic procedure, combined with large-insert library construction and sequencing, bioinformatic analyses, and functional experiments, we identified 17 distinct TRGs in a single pig manure sample, including two new tet genes: tet(59), encoding a tetracycline efflux pump, and tet(W/N/W), encoding mosaic ribosomal protection. Our study also revealed six new TRG-carrying putative nonconjugative transposons: Tn5706-like transposon Tn6298, IS200/605-related transposon Tn6303, Tn3 family transposon Tn6299,…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Transfer of the methicillin resistance genomic island among staphylococci by conjugation.

Methicillin resistance creates a major obstacle for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The resistance gene, mecA, is carried on a large (20 kb to?>?60 kb) genomic island, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), that excises from and inserts site-specifically into the staphylococcal chromosome. However, although SCCmec has been designated a mobile genetic element, a mechanism for its transfer has not been defined. Here we demonstrate the capture and conjugative transfer of excised SCCmec. SCCmec was captured on pGO400, a mupirocin-resistant derivative of the pGO1/pSK41 staphylococcal conjugative plasmid lineage, and pGO400::SCCmec (pRM27) was transferred by filter-mating into both homologous and heterologous S.…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Co-infection and emergence of rifamycin resistance during a recurrent Clostridium difficile infection.

Clostridium difficile (Peptoclostridium difficile) is a common health care associated infection with a disproportionately high incidence in elderly patients. Disease symptoms range from mild diarrhoea through to life threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Around 20% of patients may suffer recurrent disease which often requires re-hospitalisation of patients.C. difficile was isolated from stool samples from a patient with two recurrent C. difficile infections. PCR-ribotyping, whole genome sequencing and phenotypic assays were used to characterise these isolates.Genotypic and phenotypic screening of C. difficile isolates revealed multiple PCR-ribotypes present, and the emergence of rifamycin resistance during the infection cycle.Understanding both the clinical and bacterial factors…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Characterization and comparative overview of complete sequences of the first plasmids of Pandoraea across clinical and non-clinical strains.

To date, information on plasmid analysis in Pandoraea spp. is scarce. To address the gap of knowledge on this, the complete sequences of eight plasmids from Pandoraea spp. namely Pandoraea faecigallinarum DSM 23572(T) (pPF72-1, pPF72-2), Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) (pPO70-1, pPO70-2, pPO70-3, pPO70-4), Pandoraea vervacti NS15 (pPV15) and Pandoraea apista DSM 16535(T) (pPA35) were studied for the first time in this study. The information on plasmid sequences in Pandoraea spp. is useful as the sequences did not match any known plasmid sequence deposited in public databases. Replication genes were not identified in some plasmids, a situation that has led to…

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