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Tuesday, May 1, 2018

Mapping and characterizing N6-methyladenine in eukaryotic genomes using single molecule real-time sequencing.

N6-methyladenine (m6dA) has been discovered as a novel form of DNA methylation prevalent in eukaryotes, however, methods for high resolution mapping of m6dA events are still lacking. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has enabled the detection of m6dA events at single-nucleotide resolution in prokaryotic genomes, but its application to detecting m6dA in eukaryotic genomes has not been rigorously examined. Herein, we identified unique characteristics of eukaryotic m6dA methylomes that fundamentally differ from those of prokaryotes. Based on these differences, we describe the first approach for mapping m6dA events using SMRT sequencing specifically designed for the study of eukaryotic genomes, and provide…

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Tuesday, May 1, 2018

A transposable element annotation pipeline and expression analysis reveal potentially active elements in the microalga Tisochrysis lutea.

Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences known as drivers of genome evolution. Their impacts have been widely studied in animals, plants and insects, but little is known about them in microalgae. In a previous study, we compared the genetic polymorphisms between strains of the haptophyte microalga Tisochrysis lutea and suggested the involvement of active autonomous TEs in their genome evolution.To identify potentially autonomous TEs, we designed a pipeline named PiRATE (Pipeline to Retrieve and Annotate Transposable Elements, download: https://doi.org/10.17882/51795 ), and conducted an accurate TE annotation on a new genome assembly of T. lutea. PiRATE is composed of detection,…

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Tuesday, May 1, 2018

Genomic analyses of unique carbohydrate and phytohormone metabolism in the macroalga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta).

Red algae are economically valuable for food and in industry. However, their genomic information is limited, and the genomic data of only a few species of red algae have been sequenced and deposited recently. In this study, we annotated a draft genome of the macroalga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).The entire 88.98 Mb genome of Gp. lemaneiformis 981 was generated from 13,825 scaffolds (=500 bp) with an N50 length of 30,590 bp, accounting for approximately 91% of this algal genome. A total of 38.73 Mb of scaffold sequences were repetitive, and 9281 protein-coding genes were predicted. A phylogenomic analysis of 20 genomes revealed the…

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Sunday, April 15, 2018

The genome of Ectocarpus subulatus highlights unique mechanisms for stress tolerance in brown algae

Brown algae are multicellular photosynthetic organisms belonging to the stramenopile lineage. They are successful colonizers of marine rocky shores world-wide. The genus Ectocarpus, and especially strain Ec32, has been established as a genetic and genomic model for brown algae. A related species, Ectocarpus subulatus Kuetzing, is characterized by its high tolerance of abiotic stress. Here we present the genome and metabolic network of a haploid male strain of E. subulatus, establishing it as a comparative model to study the genomic bases of stress tolerance in Ectocarpus. Our analyses indicate that E. subulatus has separated from Ectocarpus sp. Ec32 via allopatric…

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Sunday, April 1, 2018

Analysis of the draft genome of the red seaweed Gracilariopsis chorda provides insights into genome size evolution in Rhodophyta.

Red algae (Rhodophyta) underwent two phases of large-scale genome reduction during their early evolution. The red seaweeds did not attain genome sizes or gene inventories typical of other multicellular eukaryotes. We generated a high quality 92.1 Mbp draft genome assembly from the red seaweed Gracilariopsis chorda, including methylation and small (s)RNA data. We analyzed these and other Archaeplastida genomes to address three questions: 1) what is the role of repeats and transposable elements (TEs) in explaining Rhodophyta genome size variation, 2) what is the history of genome duplication and gene family expansion/reduction in these taxa, and 3) is there evidence…

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Thursday, March 1, 2018

Anisogamy evolved with a reduced sex-determining region in volvocine green algae

Male and female gametes differing in size—anisogamy—emerged independently from isogamous ancestors in various eukaryotic lineages, although genetic bases of this emergence are still unknown. Volvocine green algae are a model lineage for investigating the transition from isogamy to anisogamy. Here we focus on two closely related volvocine genera that bracket this transition—isogamous Yamagishiella and anisogamous Eudorina. We generated de novo nuclear genome assemblies of both sexes of Yamagishiella and Eudorina to identify the dimorphic sex-determining chromosomal region or mating-type locus (MT) from each. In contrast to the large (>1?Mb) and complex MT of oogamous Volvox, Yamagishiella and Eudorina MT are…

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Thursday, March 1, 2018

Next-generation sequencing of Haematococcus lacustris reveals an extremely large 1.35-megabase chloroplast genome.

Haematococcus lacustris is an industrially relevant microalga that is used for the production of the carotenoid astaxanthin. Here, we report the use of PacBio long-read sequencing to assemble the chloroplast genome of H. lacustris strain UTEX:2505. At 1.35?Mb, this is the largest assembled chloroplast of any plant or alga known to date. Copyright © 2018 Bauman et al.

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Thursday, February 1, 2018

Genome sequences of Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1602 and Micractinium conductrix SAG 241.80: implications to maltose excretion by a green alga.

Green algae represent a key segment of the global species capable of photoautotrophic-driven biological carbon fixation. Algae partition fixed-carbon into chemical compounds required for biomass, while diverting excess carbon into internal storage compounds such as starch and lipids or, in certain cases, into targeted extracellular compounds. Two green algae were selected to probe for critical components associated with sugar production and release in a model alga. Chlorella sorokiniana UTEX 1602 - which does not release significant quantities of sugars to the extracellular space - was selected as a control to compare with the maltose-releasing Micractinium conductrix SAG 241.80 - which…

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Friday, December 1, 2017

The plastid genome in Cladophorales green algae is encoded by hairpin chromosomes.

Virtually all plastid (chloroplast) genomes are circular double-stranded DNA molecules, typically between 100 and 200 kb in size and encoding circa 80-250 genes. Exceptions to this universal plastid genome architecture are very few and include the dinoflagellates, where genes are located on DNA minicircles. Here we report on the highly deviant chloroplast genome of Cladophorales green algae, which is entirely fragmented into hairpin chromosomes. Short- and long-read high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA demonstrated that the chloroplast genes of Boodlea composita are encoded on 1- to 7-kb DNA contigs with an exceptionally high GC content, each containing a long inverted…

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Thursday, October 26, 2017

Draft nuclear genome sequence of the halophilic and beta-carotene-accumulating green alga Dunaliella salina strain CCAP19/18.

The halotolerant alga Dunaliella salina is a model for stress tolerance and is used commercially for production of beta-carotene (=pro-vitamin A). The presented draft genome of the genuine strain CCAP19/18 will allow investigations into metabolic processes involved in regulation of stress responses, including carotenogenesis and adaptations to life in high-salinity environments. Copyright © 2017 Polle et al.

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Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Building a locally diploid genome and transcriptome of the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus.

The genome of the cold-adapted diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus is characterized by highly diverged haplotypes that intersperse its homozygous genome. Here, we describe how a combination of PacBio DNA and Illumina RNA sequencing can be used to resolve this complex genomic landscape locally into the highly diverged haplotypes, and how to map various environmentally controlled transcripts onto individual haplotypes. We assembled PacBio sequence data with the FALCON assembler and created a haplotype resolved annotation of the assembly using annotations of a Sanger sequenced F. cylindrus genome. RNA-seq datasets from six different growth conditions were used to resolve allele-specifc gene expression in…

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Tuesday, August 1, 2017

Insights into the red algae and eukaryotic evolution from the genome of Porphyra umbilicalis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta).

Porphyra umbilicalis (laver) belongs to an ancient group of red algae (Bangiophyceae), is harvested for human food, and thrives in the harsh conditions of the upper intertidal zone. Here we present the 87.7-Mbp haploid Porphyra genome (65.8% G + C content, 13,125 gene loci) and elucidate traits that inform our understanding of the biology of red algae as one of the few multicellular eukaryotic lineages. Novel features of the Porphyra genome shared by other red algae relate to the cytoskeleton, calcium signaling, the cell cycle, and stress-tolerance mechanisms including photoprotection. Cytoskeletal motor proteins in Porphyra are restricted to a small…

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Thursday, June 8, 2017

The plastid genome In Cladophorales green algae is encoded by hairpin plasmids

Chloroplast genomes, relics of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterial genome, are circular double-stranded DNA molecules. They typically range between 100-200 kb and code for circa 80-250 genes. While fragmented mitochondrial genomes evolved several times independently during the evolution of eukaryotes, fragmented plastid genomes are only known in dinoflagellates, where genes are present on several minicircles. Here we show that the chloroplast genome of the green alga Boodlea composita (Cladophorales) is fragmented into hairpin plasmids. Short and long read high-throughput sequencing of DNA and RNA demonstrated that the chloroplast genome is fragmented with individual genes encoded on 1-7 kb, GC-rich DNA contigs, each…

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