Cultivation of locust associated rare actinobacteria, Amycolatopsis sp. HCa4, has provided five unusual macrolactams rifamorpholines A-E. Their structures were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic and crystallographic data. Rifamorpholines A-E possess an unprecedented 5/6/6/6 ring chromophore, representing a new subclass of rifamycin antibiotics. The biosynthetic pathway for compounds 1-5 involves a key 1,6-cyclization for the formation of the morpholine ring. Compounds 2 and 4 showed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MICs of 4.0 and 8.0 µM, respectively.
Journal: Organic & biomolecular chemistry