Background: The genome stability of attenuated live BCG vaccine preventing the acute forms of childhood tuberculosis is an important aspect of vaccine production. The pur- pose of our study was a whole genome comparative analysis of BCG sub-strains and identification of potential triggers of sub-strains’ transition. Results: Genomes of three BCG Russia seed lots (1963, 1982, 2006 years) have been sequenced, and the stability of vaccine sub-strain genomes has been confirmed. A com- parative genome analysis of nine Mycobacterium bovis BCG and three M. bovis strains revealed their specific genome features associated with prophage profiles. A number of prophage-coded homologs to Caudovirales ORFs were common to all BCG genomes. Prophage profiles of BCG Tice and BCG Montreal genomes were unique and coded homologs to herpes viruses ORFs. The data of phylogenetic analysis of BCG sub-strain groups based on whole genome sequences and genome restriction maps were in con- gruence with prophage profiles. The only fragmentary similarity of specific prophage sequences of BCG Tice, BCG Montreal, and BCG Russia 368 in pair-wise alignments was observed, suggesting the impact of prophages on mosaic structure of genomes. Conclusions: The whole genome sequencing approach is essential for genomes with mosaic structure, harboring numerous prophage sequences. Tools for prophage search are effective instruments in this analysis.