Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the world’s most economically important food crops and holds major significance for future food security. Despite its importance, the study of potato genetics and breeding has lagged behind mainly due to its polyploid genome and high levels of heterozygosity. Conventional marker and genotyping approaches have been helpful in progressing potato genetic research but have also had limitations in exploiting the outcome from these studies for gene discovery and applied research applications. The sequencing of the potato genome, followed by advancements in marker and genotyping technologies, has brought a step change in the way potato genetic studies are conducted. Potato is now amenable to modern sequence-based marker and genotyping methods with their increased ability to put thousands of markers on any population of interest without a priori knowledge. This has increased the precision and resolution of genetic studies previously not feasible in potato. A diverse range of fixed and flexible genotyping platforms, for a wide variety of research and breeding applications, are now available. Concerted research efforts are now needed to screen the available genetic diversity for this important crop to identify novel and beneficial trait alleles in order to enable efficient and precise introgression breeding permitting breeding of climate smart, and resilient, potato cultivars. This chapter provides an overview of sequence-based marker development and genotyping methods along with their implications for potato research and breeding in the post-genomics era.