The Helicobacter bacterial genus comprises of spiral-shaped gram-negative bacteria with flagella that colonize the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of humans and various mammals (Solnick and Schauer, 2001). In particular, Helicobacter pylori was classified as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1994, and has been shown to occur with a high prevalence in humans, although this varies between geographical regions, ethnic groups, and various populations (Kusters et al., 2006; Goh et al., 2011). To date, more than 37 Helicobacter species have been identified in addition to H. pylori (Péré-Védrenne et al., 2017). Furthermore, non-H. pylori Helicobacters (NHPH) have been shown to infect both humans and animals, and NHPH infections are associated with intestinal carcinoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma (Swennes et al., 2016). Despite the demonstrated association between NHPH and disease, most studies to date have investigated H. pylori in humans; thus, it is necessary to characterize NHPH and elucidate its role in the GI tract of wild rodents which are potential Helicobacter carriers (Taylor et al., 2007; Mladenova-Hristova et al., 2017).
Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology