This study proposes a replicon-based scheme for typing IncX plasmids into nine separately clustering subgroups, including IncX1a, IncX1ß and IncX2-8. The complete nucleotide sequences of three IncX8 plasmids, namely pT5282-CTXM and p30860-NR from Enterobacter cloacae and p13190-KPC from Klebsiella pneumoniae, were determined and were compared with two other previously sequenced IncX8 plasmids (pCAV1043-58 and pCAV1741-16). These five plasmids possessed conserved IncX8 backbones with limited genetic variation with respect to gene content and organisation, and each of them carried one or three accessory modules that harboured resistance markers and metabolic gene clusters as well as transposons, insertion sequence (IS)-based transposition units and miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs), indicating that the relatively small IncX8 backbones were able to integrate various foreign genetic contents. The resistance genes blaCTX-M-3 and blaTEM-1 (ß-lactam resistance), blaKPC-2 (carbapenem resistance) and ?blaTEM-1, and tet(A) (tetracycline resistance) and mph(E) (macrolide resistance) were found in pT5282-CTXM, p13190-KPC and pCAV1741-16, respectively, whilst p30860-NR and pCAV1043-58 carried no resistance genes. The data presented here provide an insight into the diversification and evolution history of IncX8 plasmids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Journal: International journal of antimicrobial agents