We investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome changes in M. tuberculosis with rifampicin or isoniazid resistance. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and microarray technology were performed to expound DNA methylation profiles and differentially expressed genes in rifampicin or isoniazid resis- tant M. tuberculosis. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) biological pathway analysis and meth- ylated regulatory network analysis were conducted by online forecasting databases. Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and transcriptome revealed that 335 differentially methylated genes (175 hypermethylated and 160 hypomethylated) and 132 significant differentially expressed genes (68 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated) were found to be regulated by both rifampicin and isoniazid in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Correlation analysis showed that differential methylated genes were negatively correlated with their transcriptional levels in rifampicin or isoniazid resistant strains. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that nitrogen metabolism pathway is closely related to differ- entially methylated genes induced by rifampicin and isoniazid. KEGG also suggested that differentially expressed genes in rifampicin or isoniazid-resistant strains may play different roles in regulating signal transduction events. Furthermore, five differentially methylated candidate genes (Rv0840c, Rv2243, Rv0644c, Rv2386c and Rv1130) in rifampicin resistant strains and three genes (Rv0405, Rv0252 and Rv0908) in isoniazid-resistant strains were verified the existence of protein-protein interaction in STRING database. Integrated DNA methylation and transcrip- tome analyses provide an epigenetic overview of rifampicin and isoniazid-induced antibiotic resistance in M. tuber- culosis H37Rv. Several interesting genes and regulatory pathways may provide valuable resources for epigenetic studies in M. tuberculosis antibiotic resistance.
Journal: International journal of clinical and experimental pathology