Sugarcane is one of the most important crops for sugar production in sugarcane-growing areas. Many biotic and abiotic stresses affected the sugarcane production which leads to severe losses. Pokkah boeng is now playing a very important role due to its economic threats. Currently, the occurrence and rigorousness of pokkah boeng disease have been spread like wildfire from major sugarcane-growing countries. Pokkah boeng is a fungal disease that can cause serious yield losses in susceptible varieties. Infection of the disease is caused either by spores or ascospores. It may cause serious yield losses in commercial plantings. However, there have been many reported outbreaks of the disease which have looked spectacular but have caused trade and industry loss. Fusarium species complex is the major causal agent of this disease around the world, but some researchers have documented the increased importance of Fusarium. Three Fusarium species have been identified to cause the sugarcane pokkah boeng disease in China. Moreover, Fusarium may be accompanied of its mycotoxin production, genomic sequencing, and association with nitrogen application in China. Many studies on disease investigations, breeding of disease-resistant varieties, and strategy of disease control have also been carried out in China.