Foods and beverages produced by fermentation are essential to human nutrition worldwide and, therefore, have been extensively studied (Sõukand et al., 2015). Vinegar, kombucha beverage, milk kefir, water kefir, and cocoa are the products of acetic acid fermentation (Li et al., 2015). Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) oxidize sugars or ethanol to produce acetic acid, playing an important role in fermentation. AAB have been used historically for various fermentation processes and are Gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria of the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria (Saichana et al., 2015). Although various bacteria can produce acetic acid, most commercially used bacteria are species of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter (Raspor and Goranovic, 2008). Among these organisms, Acetobacter species have attracted much attention in the field of biotechnology because these species are able to tolerate high acetic acid concentrations in the environment (Matsutani et al., 2011).
Journal: Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology