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Explore scientific publications featuring PacBio long-read sequencing data

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Amplification-free long-read sequencing of TCF4 expanded trinucleotide repeats in Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy.

PloS one
14, e0219446

2019

Abstract +

Amplification of a CAG trinucleotide motif (CTG18.1) within the TCF4 gene has been strongly associated with Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD). Nevertheless, a small minority of clinically unaffected elderly patients who have expanded CTG18.1 sequences have been identified. To test the hypothesis that the CAG expansions in these patients are protected from FECD because they have interruptions within the CAG repeats, we utilized a combination of an amplification-free, long-read sequencing method and a new target-enrichment sequence analysis tool developed by Pacific Biosciences to interrogate the sequence structure of expanded repeats. The sequencing was successful in identifying a previously described interruption within an unexpanded allele and provided sequence data on expanded alleles greater than 2000 bases in length. The data revealed considerable heterogeneity in the size distribution of expanded repeats within each patient. Detailed analysis of the long sequence reads did not reveal any instances of interruptions to the expanded CAG repeats, but did reveal novel variants within the AGG repeats that flank the CAG repeats in two of the five samples from clinically unaffected patients with expansions. This first examination of the sequence structure of CAG repeats in CTG18.1 suggests that factors other than interruptions to the repeat structure account for the absence of disease in some elderly patients with repeat expansions in the TCF4 gene.

Confident phylogenetic identification of uncultured prokaryotes through long read amplicon sequencing of the 16S-ITS-23S rRNA operon.

Environmental microbiology
21, 2485--2498

2019

Abstract +

Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is the predominant method to quantify microbial compositions and to discover novel lineages. However, traditional short amplicons often do not contain enough information to confidently resolve their phylogeny. Here we present a cost-effective protocol that amplifies a large part of the rRNA operon and sequences the amplicons with PacBio technology. We tested our method on a mock community and developed a read-curation pipeline that reduces the overall read error rate to 0.18%. Applying our method on four environmental samples, we captured near full-length rRNA operon amplicons from a large diversity of prokaryotes. The method operated at moderately high-throughput (22286-37,850 raw ccs reads) and generated a large amount of putative novel archaeal 23S rRNA gene sequences compared to the archaeal SILVA database. These long amplicons allowed for higher resolution during taxonomic classification by means of long (~1000 bp) 16S rRNA gene fragments and for substantially more confident phylogenies by means of combined near full-length 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequences, compared to shorter traditional amplicons (250 bp of the 16S rRNA gene). We recommend our method to those who wish to cost-effectively and confidently estimate the phylogenetic diversity of prokaryotes in environmental samples at high throughput.© 2019 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution.

Nucleic acids research
ePub ahead of print

2019

Abstract +

Targeted PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing (amplicon sequencing) of 16S rRNA gene fragments is widely used to profile microbial communities. New long-read sequencing technologies can sequence the entire 16S rRNA gene, but higher error rates have limited their attractiveness when accuracy is important. Here we present a high-throughput amplicon sequencing methodology based on PacBio circular consensus sequencing and the DADA2 sample inference method that measures the full-length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution and a near-zero error rate. In two artificial communities of known composition, our method recovered the full complement of full-length 16S sequence variants from expected community members without residual errors. The measured abundances of intra-genomic sequence variants were in the integral ratios expected from the genuine allelic variants within a genome. The full-length 16S gene sequences recovered by our approach allowed Escherichia coli strains to be correctly classified to the O157:H7 and K12 sub-species clades. In human fecal samples, our method showed strong technical replication and was able to recover the full complement of 16S rRNA alleles in several E. coli strains. There are likely many applications beyond microbial profiling for which high-throughput amplicon sequencing of complete genes with single-nucleotide resolution will be of use.© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

A microbial factory for defensive kahalalides in a tripartite marine symbiosis.

Science
364

2019

Abstract +

Chemical defense against predators is widespread in natural ecosystems. Occasionally, taxonomically distant organisms share the same defense chemical. Here, we describe an unusual tripartite marine symbiosis, in which an intracellular bacterial symbiont ("Candidatus Endobryopsis kahalalidefaciens") uses a diverse array of biosynthetic enzymes to convert simple substrates into a library of complex molecules (the kahalalides) for chemical defense of the host, the alga Bryopsis sp., against predation. The kahalalides are subsequently hijacked by a third partner, the herbivorous mollusk Elysia rufescens, and employed similarly for defense. "Ca E. kahalalidefaciens" has lost many essential traits for free living and acts as a factory for kahalalide production. This interaction between a bacterium, an alga, and an animal highlights the importance of chemical defense in the evolution of complex symbioses.Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

De novo assembly of the goldfish (Carassius auratus) genome and the evolution of genes after whole-genome duplication.

Science advances
5, eaav0547

2019

Abstract +

For over a thousand years, the common goldfish (Carassius auratus) was raised throughout Asia for food and as an ornamental pet. As a very close relative of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish share the recent genome duplication that occurred approximately 14 million years ago in their common ancestor. The combination of centuries of breeding and a wide array of interesting body morphologies provides an exciting opportunity to link genotype to phenotype and to understand the dynamics of genome evolution and speciation. We generated a high-quality draft sequence and gene annotations of a "Wakin" goldfish using 71X PacBio long reads. The two subgenomes in goldfish retained extensive synteny and collinearity between goldfish and zebrafish. However, genes were lost quickly after the carp whole-genome duplication, and the expression of 30% of the retained duplicated gene diverged substantially across seven tissues sampled. Loss of sequence identity and/or exons determined the divergence of the expression levels across all tissues, while loss of conserved noncoding elements determined expression variance between different tissues. This assembly provides an important resource for comparative genomics and understanding the causes of goldfish variants.

Mutation of a bHLH transcription factor allowed almond domestication.

Science
364, 1095--1098

2019

Abstract +

Wild almond species accumulate the bitter and toxic cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. Almond domestication was enabled by the selection of genotypes harboring sweet kernels. We report the completion of the almond reference genome. Map-based cloning using an F1 population segregating for kernel taste led to the identification of a 46-kilobase gene cluster encoding five basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, bHLH1 to bHLH5. Functional characterization demonstrated that bHLH2 controls transcription of the P450 monooxygenase-encoding genes PdCYP79D16 and PdCYP71AN24, which are involved in the amygdalin biosynthetic pathway. A nonsynonymous point mutation (Leu to Phe) in the dimerization domain of bHLH2 prevents transcription of the two cytochrome P450 genes, resulting in the sweet kernel trait. Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

Towards PacBio-based pan-eukaryote metabarcoding using full-length ITS sequences.

Environmental microbiology reports
ePub ahead of print

2019

Abstract +

Development of high-throughput sequencing techniques have greatly benefited our understanding about microbial ecology; yet the methods producing short reads suffer from species-level resolution and uncertainty of identification. Here we optimize PacBio-based metabarcoding protocols covering the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region) and partial Small Subunit (SSU) of the rRNA gene for species-level identification of all eukaryotes, with a specific focus on Fungi (including Glomeromycota) and Stramenopila (particularly Oomycota). Based on tests on composite soil samples and mock communities, we propose best suitable degenerate primers, ITS9munngs + ITS4ngsUni for eukaryotes and selected groups therein and discuss pros and cons of long read-based identification of eukaryotes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Improved assembly and variant detection of a haploid human genome using single-molecule, high-fidelity long reads

BioRxiv
Preprint

2019

Abstract +

The sequence and assembly of human genomes using long-read sequencing technologies has revolutionized our understanding of structural variation and genome organization. We compared the accuracy, continuity, and gene annotation of genome assemblies generated from either high-fidelity (HiFi) or continuous long-read (CLR) datasets from the same complete hydatidiform mole human genome. We find that the HiFi sequence data assemble an additional 10% of duplicated regions and more accurately represent the structure of large tandem repeats, as validated with orthogonal analyses. Additionally, the HiFi genome assembly was generated in significantly less time with fewer computational resources than the CLR assembly. Although the HiFi assembly has significantly improved continuity and accuracy in many complex regions of the genome, it still falls short of the assembly of centromeric DNA and the largest regions of segmental duplication using existing assemblers. Despite these shortcomings, our results suggest that HiFi may be the most effective stand-alone technology for de novo assembly of human genomes.

A High-Quality Genome Assembly from a Single, Field collected Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) using the PacBio Sequel II System

BioRxiv
Preprint

2019

Abstract +

A high-quality reference genome is an essential tool for applied and basic research on arthropods. Long-read sequencing technologies may be used to generate more complete and contiguous genome assemblies than alternate technologies, however, long-read methods have historically had greater input DNA requirements and higher costs than next generation sequencing, which are barriers to their use on many samples. Here, we present a 2.3 Gb de novo genome assembly of a field-collected adult female Spotted Lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) using a single PacBio SMRT Cell. The Spotted Lanternfly is an invasive species recently discovered in the northeastern United States, threatening to damage economically important crop plants in the region. The DNA from one individual was used to make one standard, size-selected library with an average DNA fragment size of ~20 kb. The library was run on one Sequel II SMRT Cell 8M, generating a total of 132 Gb of long-read sequences, of which 82 Gb were from unique library molecules, representing approximately 36-fold coverage of the genome. The assembly had high contiguity (contig N50 length = 1.5 Mb), completeness, and sequence level accuracy as estimated by conserved gene set analysis (96.8% of conserved genes both complete and without frame shift errors). Further, it was possible to segregate more than half of the diploid genome into the two separate haplotypes. The assembly also recovered two microbial symbiont genomes known to be associated with L. delicatula, each microbial genome being assembled into a single contig. We demonstrate that field-collected arthropods can be used for the rapid generation of high-quality genome assemblies, an attractive approach for projects on emerging invasive species, disease vectors, or conservation efforts of endangered species.

Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison

BioRxiv
Preprint

2019

Abstract +

To better understand the subspecies origin of antibody genes in classical inbred mouse strains, the IGH gene loci of four wild-derived mouse strains were explored by analysis of VDJ gene rearrangements. A total of 341 unique IGHV gene sequences were inferred in the wild-derived strains, including 247 sequences that have not previously been reported. The genes of the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) strain were also documented, and all but one of the 84 inferred NOD IGHV genes have previously been observed in C57BL/6 mice. This is surprising because the Swiss mouse-derived NOD strain and the C57BL/6 strain have no known shared ancestry. The relationships between the genes of the wild-derived inbred strains and of the C57BL/6, NOD and BALB/c classical inbred strain were then explored. The IGH loci of the C57BL/6 and the MSM/MsJ strains share many sequences, but analysis showed that few sequences are shared with wild-derived strains representing the three major subspecies of the house mouse. There were also few IGHV sequences that were shared by the BALB/c strain and any of the four wild-derived strains. The origins of IGHV genes in the C57BL/6, MSM/MsJ and BALB/c strains therefore remain unclear. These unexpected similarities and differences highlight our lack of understanding of the antibody gene loci of the laboratory mouse, with implications for the interpretation of strain-specific differences in models of antibody-mediated diseases, and of Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire sequencing (AIRR-seq) data. These results also suggest that a position-based immunoglobulin gene nomenclature may be unworkable in the mouse.

Islands of retroelements are major components of Drosophila centromeres

PLoS biology
17, 1-40

2019

Abstract +

Long-read sequencing, CENP-A ChIP, and chromatin fiber imaging reveal the composition and organization of Drosophila melanogaster centromeres, which have long remained elusive despite the high quality of this species’ genome. assembly.

Long-Read Sequencing Emerging in Medical Genetics

Frontiers in genetics
10, 426

2019

Abstract +

The wide implementation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has revolutionized the field of medical genetics. However, the short read lengths of currently used sequencing approaches pose a limitation for identification of structural variants, sequencing repetitive regions, phasing alleles and distinguishing highly homologous genomic regions. These limitations may significantly contribute to the diagnostic gap in patients with genetic disorders who have undergone standard NGS, like whole exome or even genome sequencing. Now, the emerging long-read sequencing (LRS) technologies may offer improvements in the characterization of genetic variation and regions that are difficult to assess with the currently prevailing NGS approaches. LRS has so far mainly been used to investigate genetic disorders with previously known or strongly suspected disease loci. While these targeted approaches already show the potential of LRS, it remains to be seen whether LRS technologies can soon enable true whole genome sequencing routinely. Ultimately, this could allow the de novo assembly of individual whole genomes used as a generic test for genetic disorders. In this article, we summarize the current LRS-based research on human genetic disorders and discuss the potential of these technologies to facilitate the next major advancements in medical genetics.

One reference genome is not enough

Genome biology
20, 104

2019

Abstract +

A recent study on human structural variation indicates insufficiencies and errors in the human reference genome, GRCh38, and argues for the construction of a human pan-genome.

Targeted Long-Read RNA Sequencing Demonstrates Transcriptional Diversity Driven by Splice-Site Variation in MYBPC3.

Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
12, e002464

2019

Abstract +

To date, clinical sequencing has focused on genomic DNA using targeted panels and exome sequencing. Sequencing of a large hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohort revealed that positive identification of a disease-associated variant was returned in only 32% of patients, with an additional 15% receiving inconclusive results. When genome sequencing fails to reveal causative variants, the transcriptome may provide additional diagnostic clarity. A recent study examining patients with genetically undiagnosed muscle disorders found that RNA sequencing, when used as a complement to exome and whole genome sequencing, had an overall diagnosis rate of 35%.

The genome of cultivated peanut provides insight into legume karyotypes, polyploid evolution and crop domestication.

Nature genetics
51, 865-876

2019

Abstract +

High oil and protein content make tetraploid peanut a leading oil and food legume. Here we report a high-quality peanut genome sequence, comprising 2.54?Gb with 20 pseudomolecules and 83,709 protein-coding gene models. We characterize gene functional groups implicated in seed size evolution, seed oil content, disease resistance and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The peanut B subgenome has more genes and general expression dominance, temporally associated with long-terminal-repeat expansion in the A subgenome that also raises questions about the A-genome progenitor. The polyploid genome provided insights into the evolution of Arachis hypogaea and other legume chromosomes. Resequencing of 52 accessions suggests that independent domestications formed peanut ecotypes. Whereas 0.42-0.47 million years ago (Ma) polyploidy constrained genetic variation, the peanut genome sequence aids mapping and candidate-gene discovery for traits such as seed size and color, foliar disease resistance and others, also providing a cornerstone for functional genomics and peanut improvement.

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