Platysternon megacephalum is the sole living representative of the poorly studied turtle lineage Platysternidae. Their mitochondrial genome has been subject to gene rearrangement and control region duplication, resulting in a unique mitochondrial gene order in vertebrates. In this study, we sequenced the first full-length turtle (P. megacephalum) liver transcriptome using single-molecule real-time sequencing to study the transcriptional mechanisms of its mitochondrial genome. ND5 and ND6 anti-sense (ND6AS) forms a single transcript with the same expression in the human mitochondrial genome, but here we demonstrated differential expression of the rearranged ND5 and ND6AS genes in P. megacephalum. And some polycistronic transcripts were also reported in this study. Notably, we detected some novel long non-coding RNAs with alternative polyadenylation from the duplicated control region, and a novel ND6AS transcript composed of a long non-coding sequence, ND6AS, and tRNA-GluAS. These results provide the first description of a mtDNA transcriptome with gene rearrangement and control region duplication. These findings further our understanding of the fundamental concepts of mitochondrial gene transcription and RNA processing, and provide a new insight into the mechanism of transcription regulation of the mitochondrial genome.
Journal: RNA biology