Sesame is an important oilseed crop with high oil content and oil quality. Abundant unsaturated fatty acids, proteins, and antioxidants in sesame seeds attract the worldwide consumption of sesame products. Sesame is highly tolerant of drought and poor soil condition, even though it is readily affected by diseases and waterlogging stress, thereby leading to reduced seed yield and quality. For sesame, increasing the high and stable yield is requisite and urgent. Meanwhile, it is necessary to increase the mechanization level of its harvest for the world's sesame production. Sesame, S. indicum, is the sole cultivated species in Sesamum genus. The relatively low genetic diversity limits sesame breeding for new and substantial improved varieties. In this section, we present a review of the key agronomic traits and the breeding methods currently used in the species. We also pinpoint the achievement of the Sesame Genome Project (SGP) and the potential for the genomics-assisted breeding in sesame.