Herein we describe an association between activation of inflammatory pathways following transient hypoxia and the appearance of the multidrug resistant bacteria Staphylococcus simulans in the fetal brain. Reduction of maternal arterial oxygen tension by 50% over 30?min resulted in a subseiuent significant over-expression of genes associated with immune responses 24?h later in the fetal brain. The activated genes were consistent with stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide; an influx of macrophages and appearance of live bacteria were found in these fetal brains. S. simulans was the predominant bacterial species in fetal brain after hypoxia, but was found in placenta of all animals. Strains of S. simulans from the placenta and fetal brain were equally highly resistant to multiple antibiotics including methicillin and had identical genome sequences. These results suggest that bacteria from the placenta invade the fetal brain after maternal hypoxia.
Journal: Scientific reports