Oryza rufipogon, the progenitor of present-day cultivated rice, O. sativa, is one of the most studied wild species of rice. It is a perennial plant commonly found in a marsh or aquatic habitats of eastern and southern Asia. It has partial outcrossing behavior and is photoperiod sensitive. The flowering time usually ranges between September and November. It has been and is being exploited as a source of valuable genes and QTLs for yield components as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. A number of populations like chromosome segment substitution lines, backcross inbred lines, near-isogenic lines, and recombinant inbred lines have been developed from crosses between O. rufipogon and O. sativa as a prebreeding resource. These are being employed for broadening the genetic base of cultivated rice and diversify the breeder’s pool. With the advent of sequencing technologies, a number of phylogenetic studies have been conducted to reveal the evolutionary relationship of O. rufipogon with cultivated rice O. sativa. Further, transcriptomic studies characterizing the effect of various abiotic stresses have been conducted on this wild species. Role of miRNA under stress reaction has also been studied. Though the genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic resources are abundant, the proteomic resources for O. rufipogon are limited.