The recent release of the maize genome (AGPv4) contains annotation errors of invertase genes and therefore the enzymes are bestly curated manually at the protein level in a comprehensible fashion The synthesis, transport and degradation of sucrose are determining factors for biomass allocation and yield of crop plants. Invertase (INV) is a key enzyme of carbon metabolism in both source and sink tissues. Current releases of the maize genome correctly annotates only two vacuolar invertases (ivr1 and ivr2) and four cell wall invertases (incw1, incw2 (mn1), incw3, and incw4). Our comprehensive survey identified 21 INV isogenes for which we propose a standard nomenclature grouped phylogenetically by amino acid similarity: three vacuolar (INVVR), eight cell wall (INVCW), and ten alkaline/neutral (INVAN) isogenes which form separate dendogram branches due to distinct molecular features. The acidic enzymes were curated for the presence of the DPN tripeptide which is coded by one of the smallest exons reported in plants. Particular attention was placed on the molecular role of INV in vascular tissues such as the nodes, internodes, leaf sheath, husk leaves and roots. We report the expression profile of most members of the maize INV family in nine tissues in two developmental stages, R1 and R3. INVCW7, INVVR2, INVAN8, INVAN9, INVAN10, and INVAN3 displayed the highest absolute expressions in most tissues. INVVR3, INVCW5, INVCW8, and INVAN1 showed low mRNA levels. Expressions of most INVs were repressed from stage R1 to R3, except for INVCW7 which increased significantly in all tissues after flowering. The mRNA levels of INVCW7 in the vegetative stem correlated with a higher transport rate of assimilates from leaves to the cob which led to starch accumulation and growth of the female reproductive organs.
Journal: Plant molecular biology