July 7, 2019  |  

Genome analysis of a major urban malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

Authors: Jiang, Xiaofang and Peery, Ashley and Hall, A and Sharma, Atashi and Chen, Xiao-Guang and Waterhouse, Robert M and Komissarov, Aleksey and Riehl, Michelle M and Shouche, Yogesh and Sharakhova, Maria V and Lawson, Dan and Pakpour, Nazzy and Arensburger, Peter and Davidson, Victoria L M and Eiglmeier, Karin and Emrich, Scott and George, Phillip and Kennedy, Ryan C and Mane, Shrinivasrao P and Maslen, Gareth and Oringanje, Chioma and Qi, Yumin and Settlage, Robert and Tojo, Marta and Tubio, Jose M C and Unger, Maria F and Wang, Bo and Vernick, Kenneth D and Ribeiro, Jose M C and James, Anthony A and Michel, Kristin and Riehle, Michael A and Luckhart, Shirley and Sharakhov, Igor V and Tu, Zhijian

Background Anopheles stephensi is the key vector of malaria throughout the Indian subcontinent and Middle East and an emerging model for molecular and genetic studies of mosquito-parasite interactions. The type form of the species is responsible for the majority of urban malaria transmission across its range.ResultsHere, we report the genome sequence and annotation of the Indian strain of the type form of An. stephensi. The 221 Mb genome assembly represents more than 92% of the entire genome and was produced using a combination of 454, Illumina, and PacBio sequencing. Physical mapping assigned 62% of the genome onto chromosomes, enabling chromosome-based analysis. Comparisons between An. stephensi and An. gambiae reveal that the rate of gene order reshuffling on the X chromosome was three times higher than that on the autosomes. An. stephensi has more heterochromatin in pericentric regions but less repetitive DNA in chromosome arms than An. gambiae. We also identify a number of Y-chromosome contigs and BACs. Interspersed repeats constitute 7.1% of the assembled genome while LTR retrotransposons alone comprise more than 49% of the Y contigs. RNA-seq analyses provide new insights into mosquito innate immunity, development, and sexual dimorphism.ConclusionsThe genome analysis described in this manuscript provides a resource and platform for fundamental and translational research into a major urban malaria vector. Chromosome-based investigations provide unique perspectives on Anopheles chromosome evolution. RNA-seq analysis and studies of immunity genes offer new insights into mosquito biology and mosquito-parasite interactions.

Journal: Genome biology
DOI: 10.1186/s13059-014-0459-2
Year: 2014

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