X

Quality Statement

Pacific Biosciences is committed to providing high-quality products that meet customer expectations and comply with regulations. We will achieve these goals by adhering to and maintaining an effective quality-management system designed to ensure product quality, performance, and safety.

X

Image Use Agreement

By downloading, copying, or making any use of the images located on this website (“Site”) you acknowledge that you have read and understand, and agree to, the terms of this Image Usage Agreement, as well as the terms provided on the Legal Notices webpage, which together govern your use of the images as provided below. If you do not agree to such terms, do not download, copy or use the images in any way, unless you have written permission signed by an authorized Pacific Biosciences representative.

Subject to the terms of this Agreement and the terms provided on the Legal Notices webpage (to the extent they do not conflict with the terms of this Agreement), you may use the images on the Site solely for (a) editorial use by press and/or industry analysts, (b) in connection with a normal, peer-reviewed, scientific publication, book or presentation, or the like. You may not alter or modify any image, in whole or in part, for any reason. You may not use any image in a manner that misrepresents the associated Pacific Biosciences product, service or technology or any associated characteristics, data, or properties thereof. You also may not use any image in a manner that denotes some representation or warranty (express, implied or statutory) from Pacific Biosciences of the product, service or technology. The rights granted by this Agreement are personal to you and are not transferable by you to another party.

You, and not Pacific Biosciences, are responsible for your use of the images. You acknowledge and agree that any misuse of the images or breach of this Agreement will cause Pacific Biosciences irreparable harm. Pacific Biosciences is either an owner or licensee of the image, and not an agent for the owner. You agree to give Pacific Biosciences a credit line as follows: "Courtesy of Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA" and also include any other credits or acknowledgments noted by Pacific Biosciences. You must include any copyright notice originally included with the images on all copies.

IMAGES ARE PROVIDED BY Pacific Biosciences ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. Pacific Biosciences DISCLAIMS ALL REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, NON-INFRINGEMENT, OWNERSHIP, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL Pacific Biosciences BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE IMAGES.

You agree that Pacific Biosciences may terminate your access to and use of the images located on the PacificBiosciences.com website at any time and without prior notice, if it considers you to have violated any of the terms of this Image Use Agreement. You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless Pacific Biosciences, its officers, directors, employees, agents, licensors, suppliers and any third party information providers to the Site from and against all losses, expenses, damages and costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, resulting from any violation by you of the terms of this Image Use Agreement or Pacific Biosciences' termination of your access to or use of the Site. Termination will not affect Pacific Biosciences' rights or your obligations which accrued before the termination.

I have read and understand, and agree to, the Image Usage Agreement.

I disagree and would like to return to the Pacific Biosciences home page.

Pacific Biosciences
Contact:

Authors: Tanimoto, Yoshihiko and Tamai, Sayaka and Matsuzaki, Takehiro and Takeuchi, Narumi and Noju, Takumi and Yanagida, Saki and Kage-Nakadai, Eriko and Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro and Kodama, Toshio and Nakamura, Shota and Motooka, Daisuke and Iida, Tetsuya and Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

Diarrheagenicity of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) remains controversial. Previously, we found that motile DAEC strains isolated from diarrheal patients induced high levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). However, DAEC strains from healthy carriers hardly induced IL-8 secretion, irrespective of their possessing flagella. In this study, we demonstrated that SK1144, a DAEC strain from a healthy carrier, suppressed IL-8 and IL-6 secretion from human epithelial cell lines. Suppression of IL-8 in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells that were transformed to express TLR5 was observed not only upon inflammatory stimulation by flagellin but also in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), despite the fact that the TNF-a- and PMA-induced inflammatory pathways reportedly are not TLR5 mediated. SK1144 neither decreased IL-8 transcript accumulation nor increased intracellular retention of IL-8. No suppression was observed when the bacteria were cultured in Transwell cups above the epithelial cells; however, a nonadherent bacterial mutant (lacking the afimbrial adhesin gene) still inhibited IL-8 secretion. Direct contact between the bacteria and epithelial cells was necessary, but diffuse adhesion was dispensable for the inhibitory effects. Infection in the presence of chloramphenicol did not suppress cytokine release by the epithelial cells, suggesting that suppression depended on effectors synthesized de novo Inflammatory suppression was attenuated with infection by a bacterial mutant deleted for hcp (encoding a component of a type VI secretion system). In conclusion, DAEC strains from healthy carriers impede epithelial cell cytokine secretion, possibly by interfering with translation via the type VI secretion system.Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

Journal: Infection and immunity
DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00683-18
Year: 2019

Read Publication

 

Stay
Current

Visit our blog »