Four known compounds, rishirilide B (1), rishirilide C (2), lupinacidin A (3), and galvaquinone B (4), representing two anthracene scaffolds typical of aromatic polyketides, were isolated from a culture of the deep-sea-derived Streptomyces olivaceus SCSIO T05. From the S. olivaceus producer was cloned and sequenced the rsd biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) that drives rishirilide biosynthesis. The structural gene rsdK2 inactivation and heterologous expression of the rsd BGC confirmed the single rsd BGC encodes construction of 1-4 and, thus, accounts for two anthracene scaffolds. Precursor incubation experiments with 13C-labeled acetate revealed that a Baeyer-Villiger-type rearrangement plays a central role in construction of 1-4. Two luciferase monooxygenase components, along with a reductase component, are presumably involved in the Baeyer-Villiger-type rearrangement reaction enabling access to the two anthracene scaffold variants. Engineering of the rsd BGC unveiled three SARP family transcriptional regulators, enhancing anthracene production. Inactivation of rsdR4, a MarR family transcriptional regulator, failed to impact production of 1-4, although production of 3 was slightly improved; most importantly rsdR4 inactivation led to the new adduct 6 in high titer. Notably, inactivation of rsdH, a putative amidohydrolase, substantially improved the overall titers of 1-4 by more than 4-fold.
Journal: Journal of natural products