Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used widely in industry, and associated environmental pollution is a serious problem. Herein, we report a novel, efficient PVA degrader, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila QL-P4, isolated from fallen leaves from virgin forest in the Qinling Mountains. The complete genome was obtained using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology and corrected using Illumina sequencing. Bioinformatics analysis revealed eight PVA/OVA (vinyl alcohol oligomer)-degrading genes. Of these, seven genes were predicted to be involved in the classical intracellular PVA/OVA degradation pathway, and one (BAY15_3292) was identified as a novel PVA oxidase. Five PVA/OVA-degrading enzymes were purified and characterised. Among which, BAY15_1712, a PVA dehydrogenase (PVADH), displayed high catalytic efficiency towards PVA and OVA substrate. All reported PVADHs only have PVA-degrading ability. Most importantly, we discovered a novel PVA oxidase (BAY15_3292) that exhibited highest PVA-degrading efficiency than the reported PVADHs. Further investigation indicated that BAY15_3292 plays a crucial role in PVA degradation in S. rhizophila QL-P4. Knocking out BAY15_3292 resulted in a significant decline in PVA-degrading activity in S. rhizophila QL-P4. Interestingly, we found that BAY15_3292 possesses exocrine activity, which distinguishes it from classical PVADHs. Transparent circle experiments further proved that BAY15_3292 greatly affects extracellular PVA degradation in S. rhizophila QL-P4. The exocrine characteristics of BAY15_3292 facilitate its potential application to PVA bioremediation. In addition, we report three new efficient secondary alcohol dehydrogenases (SADHs) with OVA-degrading ability in S. rhizophila QL-P4, compared with only one OVA-degrading SADH as reported previously.Importance With the widespread application of PVA in industry, PVA-related environmental pollution is an increasingly serious issue. Because PVA is difficult to degrade, it accumulates in aquatic environments and causes chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Biodegradation of PVA, as an economical and environment-friendly method, has attracted much interest. To date, effective and applicable PVA-degrading bacteria/enzymes have not been reported. Herein, we report a new efficient PVA degrader (S. rhizophila QL-P4) that has five PVA/OVA-degrading enzymes with high catalytic efficiency, among which BAY15_1712 is the only reported PVADH with both PVA- and OVA-degrading abilities. Importantly, we discovered a novel PVA oxidase (BAY15_3292) that is not only more efficient than other reported PVA-degrading PVADHs, but also has exocrine activity. Overall, our findings provide new insight into PVA-degrading pathways in microorganisms, and suggest S. rhizophila QL-P4 and its enzymes have potential for application to PVA bioremediation to reduce or eliminate PVA-related environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Journal: Applied and environmental microbiology