Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is an important pseudocereal crop that is strongly adapted to growth in adverse environments. Its gluten-free grain contains complete proteins with a well-balanced composition of essential amino acids and is a rich source of beneficial phytochemicals that provide significant health benefits. Here, we report a high-quality, chromosome-scale Tartary buckwheat genome sequence of 489.3 Mb that is assembled by combining whole-genome shotgun sequencing of both Illumina short reads and single-molecule real-time long reads, sequence tags of a large DNA insert fosmid library, Hi-C sequencing data, and BioNano genome maps. We annotated 33 366 high-confidence protein-coding genes based on expression evidence. Comparisons of the intra-genome with the sugar beet genome revealed an independent whole-genome duplication that occurred in the buckwheat lineage after they diverged from the common ancestor, which was not shared with rosids or asterids. The reference genome facilitated the identification of many new genes predicted to be involved in rutin biosynthesis and regulation, aluminum stress resistance, and in drought and cold stress responses. Our data suggest that Tartary buckwheat's ability to tolerate high levels of abiotic stress is attributed to the expansion of several gene families involved in signal transduction, gene regulation, and membrane transport. The availability of these genomic resources will facilitate the discovery of agronomically and nutritionally important genes and genetic improvement of Tartary buckwheat. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Journal: Molecular plant