October 5, 2023  |  Human genetics research

The complete sequence of a human Y chromosome

Authors: Arang Rhie, Sergey Nurk, Monika Cechova, Savannah J. Hoyt, Dylan J. Taylor, Nicolas Altemose, Paul W. Hook, Sergey Koren, Mikko Rautiainen, Ivan A. Alexandrov, Jamie Allen, Mobin Asri, Andrey V. Bzikadze, et al

The human Y chromosome has been notoriously difficult to sequence and assemble because of its complex repeat structure that includes long palindromes, tandem repeats and segmental duplications1,2,3. As a result, more than half of the Y chromosome is missing from the GRCh38 reference sequence and it remains the last human chromosome to be finished4,5. Here, the Telomere-to-Telomere (T2T) consortium presents the complete 62,460,029-base-pair sequence of a human Y chromosome from the HG002 genome (T2T-Y) that corrects multiple errors in GRCh38-Y and adds over 30 million base pairs of sequence to the reference, showing the complete ampliconic structures of gene families TSPY, DAZ and RBMY; 41 additional protein-coding genes, mostly from the TSPY family; and an alternating pattern of human satellite 1 and 3 blocks in the heterochromatic Yq12 region. We have combined T2T-Y with a previous assembly of the CHM13 genome4 and mapped available population variation, clinical variants and functional genomics data to produce a complete and comprehensive reference sequence for all 24 human chromosomes.

Journal: Nature
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-023-06457-y
Year: 2023

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