Potato scab, a serious soilborne disease caused by Streptomyces spp., occurs in potato-growing areas worldwide and results in severe economic losses. In this paper, the pathogenicity of Streptomyces strain AMCC400023, isolated from potato scabs in Hebei Province, China, was verified systematically by the radish seedling test, the potato tuber slice assay, the potted back experiment, and the detection of phytotoxin thaxtomin A. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics were determined, and the 16S ribosomal RNA analyses of Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 were carried out. To obtain the accurate taxonomic status of the pathogen strain, the whole genome was sequenced, and the phylogenetic tree among 31 Streptomyces genomes was formed. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) were analyzed, and at the same time, the toxicity-related genes between Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 and Streptomyces scabiei were compared, all based on the whole-genome level. All of the data supported that, instead of a member of S. scabiei, test strain Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 was a distinct phytopathogen of potato common scab, which had a relatively close relationship with S. scabiei while separating clearly from S. scabiei at least in the species level of taxonomic status. The complete pathogenicity island (PAI) composition of Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 was identified, which contained a toxin region and a colonization region. It was conjectured that the PAI of Streptomyces sp. AMCC400023 might be directly or indirectly acquired from S. scabiei 87-22 by horizontal gene transfer, or at the very least, there was a very close homologous relationship between the two pathogens as indicated by a series of analyses, such as phylogenetic relationships among 31 Streptomyces species, ANI and isDDH analyses, PAI structure mapping, thaxtomin A synthetic gene cluster tree construction, and most important, the collinearity analysis at the genome level.