Two strains, VM2412T and VR2415T, were isolated from the feces of an Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) living in Seoul Grand Park, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. Cells of both strains were observed to be Gram-stain positive, non-motile, aerobic, catalase positive and oxidase negative. Growth was found to occur at 10-30°C, showing optimum growth at 30°C. The strains could tolerate up to 15% (w/v) NaCl concentration and grow at pH 6-9. The strains shared 99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other but were identified as two distinct species based on 89.0-89.2% ANIb, 90.3% ANIm, 89.7% OrthoANI and 38.0% dDDH values calculated using whole genome sequences. Among species with validly published names, Brachybacterium ginsengisoli DCY80T shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with strains VM2412T (98.7%) and VR2415T (98.4%) and close genetic relatedness with strains VM2412T (83.3-83.5% ANIb, 87.0% ANIm, 84.3% OrthoANI and 27.8% dDDH) and VR2415T (82.8-83.2% ANIb, 86.7% ANIm, 83.9% OrthoANI and 27.2% dDDH). The major fatty acid of the two strains was identified as anteiso-C15:0 and the polar lipids consisted of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, presumptively phosphatidylethanolamine and three unidentified glycolipids. Strain VR2415T also produced an unidentified phospholipid. The cell walls of the two strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diamino acid and the whole cell sugars were ribose, glucose, and galactose. The strains contained MK-7 as their predominant menaquinone. The genomes of strains VM2412T, VR2415T, and B. ginsengisoli DCY80T were sequenced in this study. The genomic G+C contents of strains VM2412T and VR2415T were determined to be 70.8 and 70.4 mol%, respectively. A genome-based phylogenetic tree constructed using an up-to-date bacterial core gene set (UBCG) showed that the strains formed a clade with members of the genus Brachybacterium, supporting their taxonomic classification into the genus Brachybacterium. Based on phenotypic and genotypic analyses in this study, strains VM2412T and VR2415T are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Brachybacterium and the names Brachybacterium vulturis sp. nov. and Brachybacterium avium sp. nov. are proposed for strains VM2412T (=KCTC 39996T = JCM 32142T) and VR2415T (=KCTC 39997T = JCM 32143T), respectively.
Journal: Frontiers in microbiology