The rapid development of biosensing platforms for highly sensitive and specific detection raises the desire of precise localization of biomolecules onto various material surfaces. Aluminum has been strategically employed in the biosensor system due to its compatibility with CMOS technology and its optical and electrical properties such as prominent propagation of surface plasmons. Herein, we present an adaptable method for preparation of carbon nanoarrays on aluminum surface passivated with poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA). The carbon nanoarrays were defined by means of electron beam induced deposition (EBID) and they were employed to realize site-specific immobilization of target biomolecules. To demonstrate the concept, selective streptavidin/neutravidin immobilization on the carbon nanoarrays was achieved through protein physisorption with a significantly high contrast of the carbon domains over the surrounding PVPA-modified aluminum surface. By adjusting the fabrication parameters, local protein densities could be varied on similarly sized nanodomains in a parallel process. Moreover, localization of single 40 nm biotinylated beads was achieved by loading them on the neutravidin-decorated nanoarrays. As a further demonstration, DNA polymerase with a streptavidin tag was bound to the biotin-beads that were immobilized on the nanoarrays and in situ rolling circle amplification (RCA) was subsequently performed. The observation of organized DNA arrays synthesized by RCA verified the nanoscale localization of the enzyme with retained biological activity. Hence, the presented approach could provide a flexible and universal avenue to precise localizing various biomolecules on aluminum surface for potential biosensor and bioelectronic applications.
Journal: ACS Applied Bio Materials