July 7, 2019  |  

Myxobacteria: Unraveling the potential of a unique microbiome niche

Authors: Thakur, Pooja and Chopra, Chirag and Anand, Prince and Dhanjal, Daljeet Singh and Chopra, Reena Singh

Natural products obtained from microorganisms have been playing an imperative role in drug discovery for decades. Hence, rightfully, microorganisms are considered as the richest source of biochemical remedies. In this review, we represent an unexplored family of bacteria considered to be prolific producers of diverse metabolites. Myxobacteria are gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to produce large families of secondary metabolites with prominent antimicrobial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. Klaus Gerth, Norbert Bedorf, Herbert Irschik, and Hans Reichenbach observed the antifungal activity of Sorangium cellulosum against Mucor hiemalis. In 2006, Hans Reichenbach and his team obtained a novel macrolide cruentaren A from Byssovorax cruenta (myxobacteria). Cruentaren A showed inhibitory activity against yeast and filamentous fungi. It also showed selective inhibitory activity against mitochondrial F-type ATPase. Cruentaren A has been found to be cytotoxic against various human cancer cell lines. In 2007, Reichenbach and his colleagues named an antibiotic produced by Sorangium cellulosum strain Soce895 as thuggacin. This antibiotic acts on the respiration of some bacteria. Other antibiotics from myxobacteria, myxovirescin, and megovalicin show broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. The College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, China, evaluated the antitumor property of epothilone, which has shown promise for breast cancer treatment. The study determined high potential and versatile antimicrobial and antitumor secondary metabolites of myxobacteria. In yet another study, Ratjadone A, that exhibited strong antiviral activity against HIV, was obtained from Sorangium cellulosum strain. This compound shows antiviral activity in vitro but has low selectivity. Further search on the derivatives of this compound might help in the future. This is rationale enough to pre-empt that every strain of myxobacteria might be endowed to produce secondary metabolites with novel mechanisms of action which are rarely produced by other microbes. The available data establishes the impact of myxobacterial studies in search for novel metabolites as a front runner in microbiological research and worthy enough to be a thrust area of research in pharmacology.

DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-0053-0_7
Year: 2018

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