A lack of phosphorus (P) in plants can severely constrain growth and development. Barley, one of the earliest domesticated crops, is extensively planted in poor soil around the world. To date, the molecular mechanisms of enduring low phosphorus, at the transcriptional level, in barley are still unclear. In the present study, two different barley genotypes (GN121 and GN42)-with contrasting phosphorus efficiency-were used to reveal adaptations to low phosphorus stress, at three time points, at the morphological, physiological, biochemical, and transcriptome level. GN121 growth was less affected by phosphorus starvation and recovery than that of GN42. The biomass and inorganic phosphorus concentration of GN121 and GN42 declined under the low phosphorus-induced stress and increased after recovery with normal phosphorus. However, the range of these parameters was higher in GN42 than in GN121. Subsequently, a more complete genome annotation was obtained by correcting with the data sequenced on Illumina HiSeq X 10 and PacBio RSII SMRT platform. A total of 6,182 and 5,270 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in GN121 and GN42, respectively. The majority of these DEGs were involved in phosphorus metabolism such as phospholipid degradation, hydrolysis of phosphoric enzymes, sucrose synthesis, phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and post-transcriptional regulation; expression of these genes was significantly different between GN121 and GN42. Specifically, six and seven DEGs were annotated as phosphorus transporters in roots and leaves, respectively. Furthermore, a putative model was constructed relying on key metabolic pathways related to phosphorus to illustrate the higher phosphorus efficiency of GN121 compared to GN42 under low phosphorus conditions. Results from this study provide a multi-transcriptome database and candidate genes for further study on phosphorus use efficiency (PUE).
Journal: Frontiers in plant science