Entomophthoroid fungi represent an ecologically important group of fungal pathogens on insects. Here, the whole mitogenome of Conidiobolus heterosporus, one of the entomophthoroid fungi, was described and compared to those early branching fungi with available mitogenomes. The 53,364-bp circular mitogenome of C. heterosporus contained two rRNA genes, 14 standard protein-coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and three free-standing ORFs. Thirty introns interrupted nine mitochondrial genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrion-encoded proteins revealed that C. heterosporus was most close to Zancudomyces culisetae in the Zoopagomycota of basal fungi. Comparison on mitogenomes of 23 basal fungi revealed great variabilities in terms of mitogenome conformation (circular or linear), genetic code (codes 1, 4, or 16), AT contents (53.3-85.5%), etc. These mitogenomes varied from 12.0 to 97.3 kb in sizes, mainly due to different numbers of genes and introns. They showed frequent DNA rearrangement events and a high variability of gene order, although high synteny and conserved gene order were also present between closely related species. By reporting the first mitogenome in Entomophthoromycotina and the second in Zoopagomycota, this study greatly enhanced our understanding on evolution of basal fungi.
Journal: Applied microbiology and biotechnology