The Geobacter species evolved respiratory versatility to utilize a wide range of terminal electron acceptors. To explore this adaptive mechanism, Fe(III) citrate, hydrous ferric oxide, and fumarate were selected as electron acceptors, and the methylome and metabolome of Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA grown on each electron acceptor were investigated via third-generation, single-molecule real-time DNA sequencing and gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, respectively. Results showed that the patterns of 4-methylcytosine (m4C) and 6-methyladenine (m6A) modification, the concentrations of fatty acids (e.g., caprylic acid, capric acid, and squalene), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase) were all varied in different electron acceptor cultures. Moreover, genes (e.g., GSU0466 and GSU1467) with low expression levels generally had high methylation levels. These findings suggest that m4C and m6A modifications, fatty acids, and antioxidant enzymes all play a role in the adaptation of G. sulfurreducens to diverse electron acceptors, and DNA methylation may be involved in the adaptation mainly via gene expression regulation.
Journal: Journal of proteome research