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Authors: Liu, Xia and Zhao, Bo and Zheng, Hua-Jun and Hu, Yan and Lu, Gang and Yang, Chang-Qing and Chen, Jie-Dan and Chen, Jun-Jian and Chen, Dian-Yang and Zhang, Liang and Zhou, Yan and Wang, Ling-Jian and Guo, Wang-Zhen and Bai, Yu-Lin and Ruan, Ju-Xin and Shangguan, Xiao-Xia and Mao, Ying-Bo and Shan, Chun-Min and Jiang, Jian-Ping and Zhu, Yong-Qiang and Jin, Lei and Kang, Hui and Chen, Shu-Ting and He, Xu-Lin and Wang, Rui and Wang, Yue-Zhu and Chen, Jie and Wang, Li-Jun and Yu, Shu-Ting and Wang, Bi-Yun and Wei, Jia and Song, Si-Chao and Lu, Xin-Yan and Gao, Zheng-Chao and Gu, Wen-Yi and Deng, Xiao and Ma, Dan and Wang, Sen and Liang, Wen-Hua and Fang, Lei and Cai, Cai-Ping and Zhu, Xie-Fei and Zhou, Bao-Liang and Jeffrey Chen, Z and Xu, Shu-Hua and Zhang, Yu-Gao and Wang, Sheng-Yue and Zhang, Tian-Zhen and Zhao, Guo-Ping and Chen, Xiao-Ya

Of the two cultivated species of allopolyploid cotton, Gossypium barbadense produces extra-long fibers for the production of superior textiles. We sequenced its genome (AD)2 and performed a comparative analysis. We identified three bursts of retrotransposons from 20 million years ago (Mya) and a genome-wide uneven pseudogenization peak at 11-20 Mya, which likely contributed to genomic divergences. Among the 2,483 genes preferentially expressed in fiber, a cell elongation regulator, PRE1, is strikingly At biased and fiber specific, echoing the A-genome origin of spinnable fiber. The expansion of the PRE members implies a genetic factor that underlies fiber elongation. Mature cotton fiber consists of nearly pure cellulose. G. barbadense and G. hirsutum contain 29 and 30 cellulose synthase (CesA) genes, respectively; whereas most of these genes (>25) are expressed in fiber, genes for secondary cell wall biosynthesis exhibited a delayed and higher degree of up-regulation in G. barbadense compared with G. hirsutum, conferring an extended elongation stage and highly active secondary wall deposition during extra-long fiber development. The rapid diversification of sesquiterpene synthase genes in the gossypol pathway exemplifies the chemical diversity of lineage-specific secondary metabolites. The G. barbadense genome advances our understanding of allopolyploidy, which will help improve cotton fiber quality.

Journal: Scientific reports
DOI: 10.1038/srep14139
Year: 2015

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