X

Quality Statement

Pacific Biosciences is committed to providing high-quality products that meet customer expectations and comply with regulations. We will achieve these goals by adhering to and maintaining an effective quality-management system designed to ensure product quality, performance, and safety.

X

Image Use Agreement

By downloading, copying, or making any use of the images located on this website (“Site”) you acknowledge that you have read and understand, and agree to, the terms of this Image Usage Agreement, as well as the terms provided on the Legal Notices webpage, which together govern your use of the images as provided below. If you do not agree to such terms, do not download, copy or use the images in any way, unless you have written permission signed by an authorized Pacific Biosciences representative.

Subject to the terms of this Agreement and the terms provided on the Legal Notices webpage (to the extent they do not conflict with the terms of this Agreement), you may use the images on the Site solely for (a) editorial use by press and/or industry analysts, (b) in connection with a normal, peer-reviewed, scientific publication, book or presentation, or the like. You may not alter or modify any image, in whole or in part, for any reason. You may not use any image in a manner that misrepresents the associated Pacific Biosciences product, service or technology or any associated characteristics, data, or properties thereof. You also may not use any image in a manner that denotes some representation or warranty (express, implied or statutory) from Pacific Biosciences of the product, service or technology. The rights granted by this Agreement are personal to you and are not transferable by you to another party.

You, and not Pacific Biosciences, are responsible for your use of the images. You acknowledge and agree that any misuse of the images or breach of this Agreement will cause Pacific Biosciences irreparable harm. Pacific Biosciences is either an owner or licensee of the image, and not an agent for the owner. You agree to give Pacific Biosciences a credit line as follows: "Courtesy of Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA" and also include any other credits or acknowledgments noted by Pacific Biosciences. You must include any copyright notice originally included with the images on all copies.

IMAGES ARE PROVIDED BY Pacific Biosciences ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. Pacific Biosciences DISCLAIMS ALL REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, NON-INFRINGEMENT, OWNERSHIP, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL Pacific Biosciences BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE IMAGES.

You agree that Pacific Biosciences may terminate your access to and use of the images located on the PacificBiosciences.com website at any time and without prior notice, if it considers you to have violated any of the terms of this Image Use Agreement. You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless Pacific Biosciences, its officers, directors, employees, agents, licensors, suppliers and any third party information providers to the Site from and against all losses, expenses, damages and costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, resulting from any violation by you of the terms of this Image Use Agreement or Pacific Biosciences' termination of your access to or use of the Site. Termination will not affect Pacific Biosciences' rights or your obligations which accrued before the termination.

I have read and understand, and agree to, the Image Usage Agreement.

I disagree and would like to return to the Pacific Biosciences home page.

Pacific Biosciences
Contact:

Authors: Rehman, Muhammad Attiq and Yin, Xianhua and Zaheer, Rahat and Goji, Noriko and McAllister, Tim and Pritchard, Jane and Topp, Ed and Diarra, Moussa S and others

The objective of this study was to compare the resistance phenotypes to genotypes of enterococci from broiler and to evaluate the persistence and distribution of resistant genotypes in broiler fed bambermycin (BAM), penicillin (PEN), salinomycin (SAL), bacitracin (BAC) or a salinomycin/bacitracin combination (SALBAC) for 35 days. A total of 95 enterococci from cloacal (n=40), cecal (n=38) and litter collected on day 36 (n=17) samples were isolated weekly from day 7 to 36. All isolates were identified by API-20 Strep and their antimicrobial susceptibilities were evaluated using the Sensititre system with the commercially available NARMS’s plates of Gram positive bacteria. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to assess their intra- and inter-genetic variability, with a focus on virulence and antibiotic resistance characteristics. All isolates were further characterized for hemolysin production (HEM), bile salt hydrolysis (BSH) and gelatinase (GEL) activities. Of the 95 isolates, E. faecium (n = 58) and E. faecalis (n = 24) were the most common Enterococcus species identified. Significant differences in the level of resistance for the E. faecium isolates to ciprofloxacin, macrolide, penicillin and tetracycline were observed among treatments. The bcrR, mefA and aac(6) genes were higher in BAM treatment than the other groups whereas bcrR, ermA, ermB, aphA(3) and tetL were more prevalent in PEN and BAC treatments. Overall, E. faecium isolates showed higher prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, but E. faecalis from litter also exhibited a significant level of resistance. A range of 4 to 15 different virulence genes was detected in E. faecalis. All isolates from litter but one (94.1%) showed BSH activities while 52.9% of them produced GEL. HEM activity was observed only in isolates collected on Day 7 (n= 9) and Day 14 (n= 1). This study confirmed that genetically diverse antimicrobial resistant enterococci harboring virulence factors can be promoted by the use of certain antimicrobials in feed and such enterococci could persist in broiler chickens and their litter, potentially contaminating the soil upon land application. This study underscores the need for ongoing monitoring the AMR enterococci.

Journal: Frontiers in sustainable food systems
DOI: 10.3389/fsufs.2018.00083
Year: 2018

Read Publication

 

Stay
Current

Visit our blog »