This review summarizes current knowledge of chromosome characterization, genetic mapping, genomic sequencing, quality formation, floral transition, propagation, and identification in Dendrobium. The widely distributed Dendrobium has been studied for a long history, due to its important economic values in both medicine and ornamental. In recent years, some species of Dendrobium and other orchids had been reported on genomic sequences, using the next-generation sequencing technology. And the chloroplast genomes of many Dendrobium species were also revealed. The chromosomes of most Dendrobium species belong to mini-chromosomes, and showed 2n?=?38. Only a few of genetic studies were reported in Dendrobium. After revealing of genomic sequences, the techniques of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics could be employed on Dendrobium easily. Some other molecular biological techniques, such as gene cloning, gene editing, genetic transformation and molecular marker developing, had also been applied on the basic research of Dendrobium, successively. As medicinal plants, insights into the biosynthesis of some medicinal components were the most important. As ornamental plants, regulation of flower related characteristics was the most important. More, knowledge of growth and development, environmental interaction, evolutionary analysis, breeding of new cultivars, propagation, and identification of species and herbs were also required for commercial usage. All of these studies were improved using genomic sequences and related technologies. To answer some key scientific issues in Dendrobium, quality formation, flowering, self-incompatibility and seed germination would be the focus of future research. And genome related technologies and studies would be helpful.