Blooms of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) are important drivers of the global sulfur cycling oxidizing reduced sulfur in intertidal flats and stagnant water bodies. Since the discovery of PSB Chromatium okenii in 1838, it has been found that this species is characteristic of for stratified, sulfidic environments worldwide and its autotrophic metabolism has been studied in depth since. We describe here the first high-quality draft genome of a large-celled, phototrophic, ?-proteobacteria of the genus Chromatium isolated from the stratified alpine Lake Cadagno, C. okenii strain LaCa. Long read technology was used to assemble the 3.78?Mb genome that encodes 3,016 protein-coding genes and 67 RNA genes. Our findings are discussed from an ecological perspective related to Lake Cadagno. Moreover, findings of previous studies on the phototrophic and the proposed chemoautotrophic metabolism of C. okenii were confirmed on a genomic level. We additionally compared the C. okenii genome with other genomes of sequenced, phototrophic sulfur bacteria from the same environment. We found that biological functions involved in chemotaxis, movement and S-layer-proteins were enriched in strain LaCa. We describe these features as possible adaptions of strain LaCa to rapidly changing environmental conditions within the chemocline and the protection against phage infection during blooms. The high quality draft genome of C. okenii strain LaCa thereby provides a basis for future functional research on bioconvection and phage infection dynamics of blooming PSB.
Journal: Scientific reports