Understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis is useful in developing effective control methods for fungal diseases. The white root rot fungus Rosellinia necatrix is a soilborne pathogen that causes serious economic losses in various crops, including fruit trees, worldwide. Here, using next-generation sequencing techniques, we first produced a 44-Mb draft genome sequence of R. necatrix strain W97, an isolate from Japan, in which 12,444 protein-coding genes were predicted. To survey differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the pathogenesis of the fungus, the hypovirulent W97 strain infected with Rosellinia necatrix megabirnavirus 1 (RnMBV1) was used for a comprehensive transcriptome analysis. In total, 545 and 615 genes are up- and down-regulated, respectively, in R. necatrix infected with RnMBV1. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses of the DEGs suggested that primary and secondary metabolism would be greatly disturbed in R. necatrix infected with RnMBV1. The genes encoding transcriptional regulators, plant cell wall-degrading enzymes, and toxin production, such as cytochalasin E, were also found in the DEGs. The genetic resources provided in this study will accelerate the discovery of genes associated with pathogenesis and other biological characteristics of R. necatrix, thus contributing to disease control.