September 22, 2019  |  

Discovery of the first germline-restricted gene by subtractive transcriptomic analysis in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata.

Authors: Biederman, Michelle K and Nelson, Megan M and Asalone, Kathryn C and Pedersen, Alyssa L and Saldanha, Colin J and Bracht, John R

Developmentally programmed genome rearrangements are rare in vertebrates, but have been reported in scattered lineages including the bandicoot, hagfish, lamprey, and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) [1]. In the finch, a well-studied animal model for neuroendocrinology and vocal learning [2], one such programmed genome rearrangement involves a germline-restricted chromosome, or GRC, which is found in germlines of both sexes but eliminated from mature sperm [3, 4]. Transmitted only through the oocyte, it displays uniparental female-driven inheritance, and early in embryonic development is apparently eliminated from all somatic tissue in both sexes [3, 4]. The GRC comprises the longest finch chromosome at over 120 million base pairs [3], and previously the only known GRC-derived sequence was repetitive and non-coding [5]. Because the zebra finch genome project was sourced from male muscle (somatic) tissue [6], the remaining genomic sequence and protein-coding content of the GRC remain unknown. Here we report the first protein-coding gene from the GRC: a member of the a-soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein (a-SNAP) family hitherto missing from zebra finch gene annotations. In addition to the GRC-encoded a-SNAP, we find an additional paralogous a-SNAP residing in the somatic genome (a somatolog)-making the zebra finch the first example in which a-SNAP is not a single-copy gene. We show divergent, sex-biased expression for the paralogs and also that positive selection is detectable across the bird a-SNAP lineage, including the GRC-encoded a-SNAP. This study presents the identification and evolutionary characterization of the first protein-coding GRC gene in any organism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Journal: Current biology
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.03.067
Year: 2018

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