Pig has been proved to be a valuable large animal model used for research on diabetic disease. However, their translational value is limited given their distinct anatomy and physiology. For the last 30 years, we have been developing a laboratory Asian miniature pig inbred line (Bama miniature pig [BM]) from the primitive Bama xiang pig via long-term selective inbreeding. Here, we assembled a BM reference genome at full chromosome-scale resolution with a total length of 2.49 Gb. Comparative and evolutionary genomic analyses identified numerous variations between the BM and commercial pig (Duroc), particularly those in the genetic loci associated with the features advantageous to diabetes studies. Resequencing analyses revealed many differentiated gene loci associated with inbreeding and other selective forces. These together with transcriptome analyses of diabetic pig models provide a comprehensive genetic basis for resistance to diabetogenic environment, especially related to energy metabolism.Copyright © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.