An extract prepared from species of Paris is the most widely consumed herbal product in China. The genus Paris includes a variety of genotypes with different medicinal component contents but only two are defined as official sources. Closely related species have different medicinal properties because of differential expression of proteins and metabolites. To better understand the molecular basis of these differences, we examined proteomic and metabolomic changes in rhizomes of P. polyphylla var. chinensis, P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and P. fargesii var. fargesii using a technique known as sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra as well as gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 419 proteins showed significant abundance changes, and 33 metabolites could be used to discriminate Paris species. A complex analysis of proteomic and metabolomic data revealed a higher efficiency of sucrose utilization and an elevated protein abundance in the sugar metabolic pathway of P. polyphylla var. chinensis. The pyruvate content and efficiency of acetyl-CoA-utilization in saponin biosynthesis were also higher in P. polyphylla var. chinensis than in the other two species. The results expand our understanding of the proteome and metabolome of Paris and offer new insights into the species-specific traits of these herbaceous plants. SIGNIFICANCE: The traditional Chinese medicine Paris is the most widely consumed herbal product for the treatment of joint pain, rheumatoid arthritis and antineoplastic. All Paris species have roughly the same morphological characteristics; however, different members have different medicinal compound contents. Efficient exploitation of genetic diversity is a key factor in the development of rare medicinal plants with improved agronomic traits and malleability to challenging environmental conditions. Nevertheless, only a partial understanding of physiological and molecular mechanisms of different plants of Paris can be achieved without proteomics. To better understand the molecular basis of these differences and facilitate the use of other Paris species, we examine proteomic metabolomic changes in rhizomes of Paris using the technique known as SWATH-MS and GC/TOF-MS. Our research has provided information that can be used in other studies to compare metabolic traits in different Paris species. Our findings can also serve as a theoretical basis for the selection and cultivation of other Paris species with a higher medicinal value. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Journal: Journal of proteomics