We reported the first clinical case of a ceftazidime-avibactam resistant KPC-3-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (1), from a patient with no history of ceftazidime-avibactam therapy. We now present data documenting mechanisms of ceftazidime-avibactam resistance in this isolate. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on two isolates: KP1245 (ceftazidime-avibactam MIC, 4 µg/ml; from blood on hospital day 1; referred to as isolate 1 in our previous report ) and KP1244 (ceftazidime-avibactam MIC, 32 µg/ml; from blood on hospital day 2; referred to as isolate 2 in our previous report ), using MiSeq (Illumina, San Diego, CA) and PacBio RSII (Menlo Park, CA) systems (2). The in silico multilocus sequence type (ST) was ST258. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed 17 SNPs between KP1245 and KP1244, indicating that the isolates were related but that significant diversity existed in this patient (2). Nonsynonymous mutations are shown in Table 1; the most striking of these is in the OmpK36 porin gene. KP1244 contained a missense mutation predicted to encode a T333N mutation. Both isolates also harbored a mutation predicted to encode R191L in OmpK36 and had a nonfunctional OmpK35, due to a frameshift mutation that truncated the protein at amino acid 42, common to K. pneumoniae ST258 (3). Association between mutations in ompK36 and elevated ceftazidime-avibactam MICs has been shown previously (4). However, T333N, found in one of the ß-sheet domains of the OmpK36 subunit, has not been described in K. pneumoniae; as such, further validation is required to confirm the role of the OmpK36 mutation in this isolate's ceftazidime-avibactam resistance phenotype.
Journal: Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy