The aim of this review is to provide an update on the plasmids mediating DHA-1 cephalosporinase in Klebsiella pneumoniae. These plasmids have been mainly found in this bacterium but not only. The first was isolated from Salmonella sp. in France in the early 1990s. They are currently reported worldwide. BlaDHA-1 beta-lactamase gene is usually co-expressed with many other antibiotic resistance genes such as extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (blaCTX-M-, bla SHV -types), oxacillinases (blaOXA-1, blaOXA-30), penicillinases (bla TEM -type), carbapenemases (bla OXA48 , blaKPC-2), aminoglycosides (aacA, aadA, armA), fluoroquinolones (qnrB4, aac6'-1b-cr), and sulfonamide (sul1) resistance genes. Plasmids carrying DHA-1 cephalosporinase have different sizes (22 to 313 kb), belong to diverse groups of incompatibility (R, L/M, FII(k), FIB, A/C2, HI2, HIB), and are self-transferable or not. The multidrug resistance region consists of a mosaic structure composed of resistance genes, insertion sequences, composite transposon, and integrons.
Journal: European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases