Water kefir is a traditional fermented beverage made from sucrose, water, kefir granules, dried or fresh fruits. In our water kefir granules, Lactobacillus (L.) hordei is one of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species of this presumed symbiotic consortium. It faces abundant sucrose versus limitation of amino- and fatty acids in an acidic environment. Sequencing of the genome of L. hordei TMW 1.1822 revealed one chromosome plus three plasmids. The size of the chromosome was 2.42?Mbp with a GC content of 35% GC and 2461 predicted coding sequences. Furthermore, we identified 1474 proteins upon growth on water kefir medium. Metabolic prediction revealed all enzymes required for the glycolytic Embden-Meyerhof (EMP) and phosphoketolase (PKP) pathways. Genes encoding all enzymes involved in citrate, pyruvate and mannitol metabolism are present. Moreover, it was confirmed that L. hordei is prototrophic for 11 amino acids and auxotrophic for 6 amino acids when combining putative biosynthesis pathways for amino acids with physiological characterization. Still, for glycine, serine and methionine no sure auxotype could be determined. The OppABCDF peptide transport system is complete, and 13 genes encoding peptidases are present. The arginine deiminase system, was predicted to be complete except for carbamate kinase, thus enabling neutralization reactions via ammonium formation but no additional energy generation. Taken together our findings enable prediction of the L. hordei lifestyle in water kefir: Abundant sucrose is consumed directly via parallel EMP and PK pathways and is also extracellularly converted to dextran and fructose by a glucansucrase, leaving fructose as additional carbon source. Essential amino acids (in the form of peptides) and citrate are acquired from fruits. In the lack of FabB unsaturated fatty acids are synthesized by predicted alternative enzymes. Formation of acetoin and diacetyl as well as arginine conversion reactions enable acidification limitation. Other members of the water kefir consortium (yeasts, acetic acid bacteria) likely facilitate or support growth of L. hordei by delivering gluconate, mannitol, amino- and fatty acids and vitamins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Journal: International journal of food microbiology