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Authors: Sentausa, Erwin and Basso, Pauline and Berry, Alice and Adrait, Annie and Bellement, Gwendoline and Coute, Yohann and Lory, Stephen and Elsen, Sylvie and Attree, Ina

Taxonomic outliers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of environmental origin have recently emerged as infectious for humans. Here we present the first genome-wide analysis of an isolate that caused fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia. We demonstrate that, in two sequential clones, CLJ1 and CLJ3, recovered from a patient with chronic pulmonary disease, insertion of a mobile genetic element into the P. aeruginosa chromosome affected major virulence-associated phenotypes and led to increased resistance to antibiotics used to treat the patient. Comparative proteome and transcriptome analyses revealed that this insertion sequence, ISL3, disrupted genes encoding flagellar components, type IV pili, O-specific antigens, translesion polymerase and enzymes producing hydrogen cyanide. CLJ3 possessed seven fold more IS insertions than CLJ1, some modifying its susceptibility to antibiotics by disrupting the genes for the outer-membrane porin OprD and the regulator of ß-lactamase expression AmpD. In the Galleria mellonella larvae model, the two strains displayed different levels of virulence, with CLJ1 being highly pathogenic. This work reveals ISs as major players in enhancing the pathogenic potential of a P. aeruginosa taxonomic outlier by modulating both, the virulence and the resistance to antimicrobials, and explains the ability of this bacterium to adapt from the environment to a human host.

Journal: BioRxiv
DOI: 10.1101/452334
Year: 2018

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