September 22, 2019  |  

Inpactor, integrated and parallel analyzer and classifier of LTR retrotransposons and its application for pineapple LTR retrotransposons diversity and dynamics.

Authors: Orozco-Arias, Simon and Liu, Juan and Tabares-Soto, Reinel and Ceballos, Diego and Silva Domingues, Douglas and Garavito, Andréa and Ming, Ray and Guyot, Romain

One particular class of Transposable Elements (TEs), called Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs), retrotransposons, comprises the most abundant mobile elements in plant genomes. Their copy number can vary from several hundreds to up to a few million copies per genome, deeply affecting genome organization and function. The detailed classification of LTR retrotransposons is an essential step to precisely understand their effect at the genome level, but remains challenging in large-sized genomes, requiring the use of optimized bioinformatics tools that can take advantage of supercomputers. Here, we propose a new tool: Inpactor, a parallel and scalable pipeline designed to classify LTR retrotransposons, to identify autonomous and non-autonomous elements, to perform RT-based phylogenetic trees and to analyze their insertion times using High Performance Computing (HPC) techniques. Inpactor was tested on the classification and annotation of LTR retrotransposons in pineapple, a recently-sequenced genome. The pineapple genome assembly comprises 44% of transposable elements, of which 23% were classified as LTR retrotransposons. Exceptionally, 16.4% of the pineapple genome assembly corresponded to only one lineage of the Gypsy superfamily: Del, suggesting that this particular lineage has undergone a significant increase in its copy numbers. As demonstrated for the pineapple genome, Inpactor provides comprehensive data of LTR retrotransposons' classification and dynamics, allowing a fine understanding of their contribution to genome structure and evolution. Inpactor is available at

Journal: Biology
DOI: 10.3390/biology7020032
Year: 2018

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