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Authors: Ling, Hong-Qing and Ma, Bin and Shi, Xiaoli and Liu, Hui and Dong, Lingli and Sun, Hua and Cao, Yinghao and Gao, Qiang and Zheng, Shusong and Li, Ye and Yu, Ying and Du, Huilong and Qi, Ming and Li, Yan and Lu, Hongwei and Yu, Hua and Cui, Yan and Wang, Ning and Chen, Chunlin and Wu, Huilan and Zhao, Yan and Zhang, Juncheng and Li, Yiwen and Zhou, Wenjuan and Zhang, Bairu and Hu, Weijuan and van Eijk, Michiel J T and Tang, Jifeng and Witsenboer, Hanneke M A and Zhao, Shancen and Li, Zhensheng and Zhang, Aimin and Wang, Daowen and Liang, Chengzhi

Triticum urartu (diploid, AA) is the progenitor of the A subgenome of tetraploid (Triticum turgidum, AABB) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) wheat1,2. Genomic studies of T. urartu have been useful for investigating the structure, function and evolution of polyploid wheat genomes. Here we report the generation of a high-quality genome sequence of T. urartu by combining bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-by-BAC sequencing, single molecule real-time whole-genome shotgun sequencing 3 , linked reads and optical mapping4,5. We assembled seven chromosome-scale pseudomolecules and identified protein-coding genes, and we suggest a model for the evolution of T. urartu chromosomes. Comparative analyses with genomes of other grasses showed gene loss and amplification in the numbers of transposable elements in the T. urartu genome. Population genomics analysis of 147 T. urartu accessions from across the Fertile Crescent showed clustering of three groups, with differences in altitude and biostress, such as powdery mildew disease. The T. urartu genome assembly provides a valuable resource for studying genetic variation in wheat and related grasses, and promises to facilitate the discovery of genes that could be useful for wheat improvement.

Journal: Nature
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0108-0
Year: 2018

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