One mcr-1-carrying Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana strain D90, was identified from 1320 Salmonella enterica isolates from poultry slaughterhouse in 2012 in China. The objective of this study was to verify the transferability of the mcr-1 gene and also completely characterize the sequence of the strain at the whole-genome level. Broth matting assays were carried out to detect the transferability and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of S. enterica serovar Indiana D90 was performed using the PacBio RS II system. Open reading frames were assigned using Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) and analysed by BLASTn and BLASTp. Salmonella Pathogenisity Islands (SPIs) were annotated by SPIFinder platform. The complete genome sequence of S. enterica serovar Indiana D90 contained a circular 4,779,514-bp chromosome and four plasmids. Genome analysis and sequencing revealed that 24 multi-drug resistance (MDR) genes were located on plasmids. The largest plasmid pD90-1, was found to be of an IncHI2/HI2A/Q1/N type that encoded a blaCTX-M-65 gene along with 20 additional antimicrobial resistance genes. A 60.5-kbp IncI2 plasmid pD90-2 contained a nikA-nikB-mcr-1 genetic structure, that can be successfully transferred to E. coli and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium at low transfer rates. Interestingly, comparative sequence analysis revealed the plasmids pD90-1 and pD90-2 showed considerable nucleotide similarity to pHNSHP45-2 and pHNSHP45, respectively. Moreover, the genome and the plasmid pD90-2 also showed high similarity to one carbapenem resistant S. enterica serovar Indiana strain, C629 and its plasmid pC629, respectively. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence of one mcr-1-carrying MDR S. enterica serovar Indiana strain.
Journal: Veterinary microbiology