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AgIn: Measuring the landscape of CpG methylation of individual repetitive elements.

Bioinformatics
ePub ahead of print

2016

Abstract +

Determining the methylation state of regions with high copy numbers is challenging for second-generation sequencing, because the read length is insufficient to map reads uniquely, especially when repetitive regions are long and nearly identical to each other. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing is a promising method for observing such regions, because it is not vulnerable to GC bias, it produces long read lengths, and its kinetic information is sensitive to DNA modifications.We propose a novel linear-time algorithm that combines the kinetic information for neighboring CpG sites and increases the confidence in identifying the methylation states of those sites. Using a practical read coverage of ?30-fold from an inbred strain medaka (Oryzias latipes), we observed that both the sensitivity and precision of our method on individual CpG sites were ?93.7%. We also observed a high correlation coefficient (R?=?0.884) between our method and bisulfite sequencing, and for 92.0% of CpG sites, methylation levels ranging over [0, 1] were in concordance within an acceptable difference 0.25. Using this method, we characterized the landscape of the methylation status of repetitive elements, such as LINEs, in the human genome, thereby revealing the strong correlation between CpG density and hypomethylation and detecting hypomethylation hot spots of LTRs and LINEs. We uncovered the methylation states for nearly identical active transposons, two novel LINE insertions of identity ?99% and length 6050 base pairs (bp) in the human genome, and 16 Tol2 elements of identity >99.8% and length 4682?bp in the medaka genome.AgIn (Aggregate on Intervals) is available at: https://github.com/hacone/AgIn CONTACT: ysuzuki@cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp, moris@cb.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

PacBio full-length transcriptome profiling of insect mitochondrial gene expression.

RNA Biology
ePub ahead of print

2016

Abstract +

In this study, we sequenced the first full-length insect transcriptome using the Erthesina fullo Thunberg based on the PacBio platform. We constructed the first quantitative transcription map of animal mitochondrial genomes and built a straightforward and concise methodology to investigate mitochondrial gene transcription, RNA processing, mRNA maturation and several other related topics. Most of the results were consistent with the previous studies, while to the best of our knowledge some findings were reported for the first time in this study. The new findings included the high levels of mitochondrial gene expression, the 3' polyadenylation and possible 5' m(7)G caps of rRNAs, the isoform diversity of 12S rRNA, the polycistronic transcripts and natural antisense transcripts of mitochondrial genes et al. These findings could challenge and enrich fundamental concepts of mitochondrial gene transcription and RNA processing, particularly of the rRNA primary (sequence) structure. The methodology constructed in this study can also be used to study gene expression or RNA processing of nuclear genomes.

Genome-wide characterization of human L1 antisense promoter-driven transcripts.

BMC Genomics
17, 463

2016

Abstract +

Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is the only autonomously active, transposable element in the human genome. L1 sequences comprise approximately 17 % of the human genome, but only the evolutionarily recent, human-specific subfamily is retrotransposition competent. The L1 promoter has a bidirectional orientation containing a sense promoter that drives the transcription of two proteins required for retrotransposition and an antisense promoter. The L1 antisense promoter can drive transcription of chimeric transcripts: 5' L1 antisense sequences spliced to the exons of neighboring genes.The impact of L1 antisense promoter activity on cellular transcriptomes is poorly understood. To investigate this, we analyzed GenBank ESTs for messenger RNAs that initiate in the L1 antisense promoter. We identified 988 putative L1 antisense chimeric transcripts, 911 of which have not been previously reported. These appear to be alternative genic transcripts, sense-oriented with respect to gene and initiating near, but typically downstream of, the gene transcriptional start site. In multiple cell lines, L1 antisense promoters display enrichment for YY1 transcription factor and histone modifications associated with active promoters. Global run-on sequencing data support the activity of the L1 antisense promoter. We independently detected 124 L1 antisense chimeric transcripts using long read Pacific Biosciences RNA-seq data. Furthermore, we validated four chimeric transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing and demonstrated that they are readily detectable in many normal human tissues.We present a comprehensive characterization of human L1 antisense promoter-driven transcripts and provide substantial evidence that they are transcribed in a variety of human cell-types. Our findings reveal a new wide-reaching aspect of L1 biology by identifying antisense transcripts affecting as many as 4 % of all human genes.

Structural changes following the reversal of a Y chromosome to an autosome in Drosophila pseudoobscura

bioRxiv
Preprint

2016

Abstract +

Robertsonian translocations resulting in fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes shape karyotype evolution in animals by creating new sex chromosomes from autosomes. These translocations can also reverse sex chromosomes back into autosomes, which is especially intriguing given that autosomes and sex chromosomes differ in gene regulation and chromatin environment. While researchers are beginning to understand X chromosomes reversals to autosomes at a genomic level, it is difficult to study reversals of Y chromosomes because of their rapid sequence turnover and high repeat content. To gain insight into the genomic events following a Y chromosome reversal, we investigated an autosome-Y translocation in a well-studied and tractable organism, Drosophila pseudoobscura. About 10-15 Mya, the ancestral Y chromosome fused to a small autosome (the dot chromosome) in an ancestor of D. pseudoobscura. We used single molecule real-time sequencing reads to assemble the genic part of the D. pseudoobscura dot chromosome, including this Y-to-dot translocation. We find that the intervening sequence between the ancestral Y and the rest of the dot chromosome is only ~78 Kb and has a low repeat density, suggesting that the centromere now falls outside, rather than between, the fused chromosomes. The Y-to-dot region is 100 times smaller than the D. melanogaster Y chromosome, owing to repeat landscape changes. Previous studies suggest that recurrent selective sweeps favoring shorter introns helped to shrink the Y-to-dot following the translocation. Our results suggest that genetic drift and a small ancestral Y chromosome may also help explain the compact size of the Y-to-dot translocation.

Phased diploid genome assembly with Single Molecule Real-Time Sequencing

bioRxiv
Preprint

2016

Abstract +

While genome assembly projects have been successful in a number of haploid or inbred species, one of the current main challenges is assembling non-inbred or rearranged heterozygous genomes. To address this critical need, we introduce the open-source FALCON and FALCON-Unzip algorithms (https://github.com/PacificBiosciences/FALCON/) to assemble Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT(R)) Sequencing data into highly accurate, contiguous, and correctly phased diploid genomes. We demonstrate the quality of this approach by assembling new reference sequences for three heterozygous samples, including an F1 hybrid of the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the widely cultivated V. vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and the coral fungus Clavicorona pyxidata that have challenged short-read assembly approaches. The FALCON-based assemblies were substantially more contiguous and complete than alternate short or long-read approaches. The phased diploid assembly enabled the study of haplotype structures and heterozygosities between the homologous chromosomes, including identifying widespread heterozygous structural variations within the coding sequences.

The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

Nature
534, 102-105

2016

Abstract +

Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty.

Nested Russian doll-like genetic mobility drives rapid dissemination of the Carbapenem resistance gene blaKPC

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
60, 3767-3778

2016

Abstract +

The recent widespread emergence of carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is a major public health concern, as carbapenems are a therapy of last resort against this family of common bacterial pathogens. Resistance genes can mobilize via various mechanisms, including conjugation and transposition; however, the importance of this mobility in short-term evolution, such as within nosocomial outbreaks, is unknown. Using a combination of short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing of 281 blaKPC-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from a single hospital over 5 years, we demonstrate rapid dissemination of this carbapenem resistance gene to multiple species, strains, and plasmids. Mobility of blaKPC occurs at multiple nested genetic levels, with transmission of blaKPC strains between individuals, frequent transfer of blaKPC plasmids between strains/species, and frequent transposition of blaKPC transposon Tn4401 between plasmids. We also identify a common insertion site for Tn4401 within various Tn2-like elements, suggesting that homologous recombination between Tn2-like elements has enhanced the spread of Tn4401 between different plasmid vectors. Furthermore, while short-read sequencing has known limitations for plasmid assembly, various studies have attempted to overcome this by the use of reference-based methods. We also demonstrate that, as a consequence of the genetic mobility observed in this study, plasmid structures can be extremely dynamic, and therefore these reference-based methods, as well as traditional partial typing methods, can produce very misleading conclusions. Overall, our findings demonstrate that nonclonal resistance gene dissemination can be extremely rapid, presenting significant challenges for public health surveillance and achieving effective control of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Sheppard et al.

Phase variation of a Type IIG restriction-modification enzyme alters site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression in Campylobacter jejuni strain NCTC11168.

Nucleic Acids Research
44, 4581-4594

2016

Abstract +

Phase-variable restriction-modification systems are a feature of a diverse range of bacterial species. Stochastic, reversible switches in expression of the methyltransferase produces variation in methylation of specific sequences. Phase-variable methylation by both Type I and Type III methyltransferases is associated with altered gene expression and phenotypic variation. One phase-variable gene of Campylobacter jejuni encodes a homologue of an unusual Type IIG restriction-modification system in which the endonuclease and methyltransferase are encoded by a single gene. Using both inhibition of restriction and PacBio-derived methylome analyses of mutants and phase-variants, the cj0031c allele in C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 was demonstrated to specifically methylate adenine in 5'CCCGA and 5'CCTGA sequences. Alterations in the levels of specific transcripts were detected using RNA-Seq in phase-variants and mutants of cj0031c but these changes did not correlate with observed differences in phenotypic behaviour. Alterations in restriction of phage growth were also associated with phase variation (PV) of cj0031c and correlated with presence of sites in the genomes of these phages. We conclude that PV of a Type IIG restriction-modification system causes changes in site-specific methylation patterns and gene expression patterns that may indirectly change adaptive traits.© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Single-locus enrichment without amplification for sequencing and direct detection of epigenetic modifications.

Molecular Genetics and Genomics
291, 1491-1504

2016

Abstract +

A gene-level targeted enrichment method for direct detection of epigenetic modifications is described. The approach is demonstrated on the CGG-repeat region of the FMR1 gene, for which large repeat expansions, hitherto refractory to sequencing, are known to cause fragile X syndrome. In addition to achieving a single-locus enrichment of nearly 700,000-fold, the elimination of all amplification steps removes PCR-induced bias in the repeat count and preserves the native epigenetic modifications of the DNA. In conjunction with the single-molecule real-time sequencing approach, this enrichment method enables direct readout of the methylation status and the CGG repeat number of the FMR1 allele(s) for a clonally derived cell line. The current method avoids potential biases introduced through chemical modification and/or amplification methods for indirect detection of CpG methylation events.

Single-molecule sequencing reveals complex genomic variation of hepatitis B virus during 15 years of chronic infection following liver transplantation.

Journal of Virology
ePub ahead of print

2016

Abstract +

Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is prevalent worldwide. The infectious agent, hepatitis B virus (HBV) replicates via an RNA intermediate and is error-prone, leading to rapid generation of closely related but not identical viral variants, including those that can escape host immune responses and antiviral treatments. The complexity of CHB can be further enhanced by the presence of HBV variants with large deletions in the genome, generated via splicing (spHBV). Although spHBV variants are incapable of autonomous replication, their replication is rescued by wild-type HBV. SpHBV variants have been shown to enhance wild-type virus replication, and their prevalence increases with liver disease progression. Single-molecule deep sequencing was performed on whole HBV genomes extracted from longitudinal samples of a post-liver transplant CHB subject, collected over a 15-year period that included the liver explant. By employing novel bioinformatics methods, this analysis showed a complex dynamics of the viral population across a period of changing treatment regimens. The spHBV detected in the liver explant remained present post-transplantation, along with emergence of a highly diverse novel spHBV population as well as variants with multiple deletions in the preS genes. The identification of novel mutations outside the HBV reverse transcriptase gene that co-occur with known drug resistant mutations, highlight the relevance of using full genome deep sequencing and support the hypothesis that drug resistance involves interactions across the full-length HBV genome.Single-molecule sequencing allowed characterising, in unprecedented detail, the evolution of HBV populations and offered unique insights into the dynamics of defective and spHBV variants following liver transplantation and complex treatment regimes. This analysis also showed rapid adaptation of HBV populations to treatment regimens with evolving drug resistance phenotypes and evidence of purifying selection across the whole genome. Finally, the new open source bioinformatics tools are freely available, with the capacity to easily identify potential spliced variants from deep sequencing data. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Large deletions at the SHOX locus in the pseudoautosomal region are associated with skeletal atavism in Shetland ponies.

G3
ePub ahead of print

2016

Abstract +

Skeletal atavism in Shetland ponies is a heritable disorder characterized by abnormal growth of the ulna and fibula that extend the carpal and tarsal joints, respectively. This causes abnormal skeletal structure, impaired movements, and affected foals are usually euthanized. In order to identify the causal mutation we subjected six confirmed Swedish cases and a DNA pool consisting of 21 control individuals to whole genome resequencing. We screened for polymorphisms where the cases and the control pool were fixed for opposite alleles and observed this signature for only 25 SNPs, most of which were scattered on genome assembly unassigned scaffolds. Read depth analysis at these loci revealed homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for two partially overlapping large deletions in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of chromosome X/Y in cases but not in the control pool. One of these deletions removes the entire coding region of the SHOX gene and both deletions remove parts of the CRLF2 gene located downstream of SHOX. The horse reference assembly of the PAR is highly fragmented, and in order to characterize this region we sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology. This considerably improved the assembly and enabled size estimations of the two deletions to 160-180 kb and 60-80 kb, respectively. Complete association between the presence of these deletions and disease status was verified in eight other affected horses. The result of the present study is consistent with previous studies in humans showing crucial importance of SHOX for normal skeletal development. Copyright © 2016 Author et al.

Elusive Plasmodium species complete the human malaria genome set

bioRxiv
Preprint, 052696

2016

Abstract +

Despite the huge international endeavor to understand the genomic basis of malaria biology, there remains a lack of information about two human-infective species: Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale. The former is prevalent across all malaria endemic regions and able to recrudesce decades after the initial infection. The latter is a dormant stage hypnozoite-forming species, similar to P. vivax. Here we present the newly assembled reference genomes of both species, thereby completing the set of all human-infective Plasmodium species. We show that the P. malariae genome is markedly different to other Plasmodium genomes and relate this to its unique biology. Using additional draft genome assemblies, we confirm that P. ovale consists of two cryptic species that may have diverged millions of years ago. These genome sequences provide a useful resource to study the genetic basis of human-infectivity in Plasmodium species.

Genome structural diversity among 31 Bordetella pertussis Isolates from two recent U.S. whooping cough statewide epidemics

mSphere
1, e00036-16

2016

Abstract +

During 2010 and 2012, California and Vermont, respectively, experienced statewide epidemics of pertussis with differences seen in the demographic affected, case clinical presentation, and molecular epidemiology of the circulating strains. To overcome limitations of the current molecular typing methods for pertussis, we utilized whole-genome sequencing to gain a broader understanding of how current circulating strains are causing large epidemics. Through the use of combined next-generation sequencing technologies, this study compared de novo, single-contig genome assemblies from 31 out of 33 Bordetella pertussis isolates collected during two separate pertussis statewide epidemics and 2 resequenced vaccine strains. Final genome architecture assemblies were verified with whole-genome optical mapping. Sixteen distinct genome rearrangement profiles were observed in epidemic isolate genomes, all of which were distinct from the genome structures of the two resequenced vaccine strains. These rearrangements appear to be mediated by repetitive sequence elements, such as high-copy-number mobile genetic elements and rRNA operons. Additionally, novel and previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in 10 virulence-related genes in the epidemic isolates. Whole-genome variation analysis identified state-specific variants, and coding regions bearing nonsynonymous mutations were classified into functional annotated orthologous groups. Comprehensive studies on whole genomes are needed to understand the resurgence of pertussis and develop novel tools to better characterize the molecular epidemiology of evolving B.~pertussis populations.IMPORTANCE Pertussis, or whooping cough, is the most poorly controlled vaccine-preventable bacterial disease in the United States, which has experienced a resurgence for more than a decade. Once viewed as a monomorphic pathogen, B.~pertussis strains circulating during epidemics exhibit diversity visible on a genome structural level, previously undetectable by traditional sequence analysis using short-read technologies. For the first time, we combine short- and long-read sequencing platforms with restriction optical mapping for single-contig, de novo assembly of 31 isolates to investigate two geographically and temporally independent U.S. pertussis epidemics. These complete genomes reshape our understanding of B.~pertussis evolution and strengthen molecular epidemiology toward one day understanding the resurgence of pertussis.

HapIso: an accurate method for the haplotype-specific isoforms reconstruction from long single-molecule reads


Preprint, 80-92

2016

Abstract +

Sequencing of RNA provides the possibility to study an individual's transcriptome landscape and determine allelic expression ratios. Single-molecule protocols generate multi-kilobase reads longer than most transcripts allowing sequencing of complete haplotype isoforms. This allows partitioning the reads into two parental haplotypes. While the read length of the single-molecule protocols is long, the relatively high error rate limits the ability to accurately detect the genetic variants and assemble them into the haplotype-specific isoforms. In this paper, we present HapIso (Haplotype-specific Isoform Reconstruction), a method able to tolerate the relatively high error-rate of the single-molecule platform and partition the isoform reads into the parental alleles. Phasing the reads according to the allele of origin allows our method to efficiently distinguish between the read errors and the true biological mutations. HapIso uses a k-means clustering algorithm aiming to group the reads into two meaningful clusters maximizing the similarity of the reads within cluster and minimizing the similarity of the reads from different clusters. Each cluster corresponds to a parental haplotype. We use family pedigree information to evaluate our approach. Experimental validation suggests that HapIso is able to tolerate the relatively high error-rate and accurately partition the reads into the parental alleles of the isoform transcripts. Furthermore, our method is the first method able to reconstruct the haplotype-specific isoforms from long single-molecule reads.

Improved metagenome assemblies and taxonomic binning using long-read circular consensus sequence data.

Scientific Reports
6, 25373

2016

Abstract +

DNA assembly is a core methodological step in metagenomic pipelines used to study the structure and function within microbial communities. Here we investigate the utility of Pacific Biosciences long and high accuracy circular consensus sequencing (CCS) reads for metagenomic projects. We compared the application and performance of both PacBio CCS and Illumina HiSeq data with assembly and taxonomic binning algorithms using metagenomic samples representing a complex microbial community. Eight SMRT cells produced approximately 94 Mb of CCS reads from a biogas reactor microbiome sample that averaged 1319 nt in length and 99.7% accuracy. CCS data assembly generated a comparative number of large contigs greater than 1?kb, to those assembled from a ~190x larger HiSeq dataset (~18 Gb) produced from the same sample (i.e approximately 62% of total contigs). Hybrid assemblies using PacBio CCS and HiSeq contigs produced improvements in assembly statistics, including an increase in the average contig length and number of large contigs. The incorporation of CCS data produced significant enhancements in taxonomic binning and genome reconstruction of two dominant phylotypes, which assembled and binned poorly using HiSeq data alone. Collectively these results illustrate the value of PacBio CCS reads in certain metagenomics applications.

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