+

X

Quality Statement

Pacific Biosciences is committed to providing high-quality products that meet customer expectations and comply with regulations. We will achieve these goals by adhering to and maintaining an effective quality-management system designed to ensure product quality, performance, and safety.

X

Image Use Agreement

By downloading, copying, or making any use of the images located on this website (“Site”) you acknowledge that you have read and understand, and agree to, the terms of this Image Usage Agreement, as well as the terms provided on the Legal Notices webpage, which together govern your use of the images as provided below. If you do not agree to such terms, do not download, copy or use the images in any way, unless you have written permission signed by an authorized Pacific Biosciences representative.

Subject to the terms of this Agreement and the terms provided on the Legal Notices webpage (to the extent they do not conflict with the terms of this Agreement), you may use the images on the Site solely for (a) editorial use by press and/or industry analysts, (b) in connection with a normal, peer-reviewed, scientific publication, book or presentation, or the like. You may not alter or modify any image, in whole or in part, for any reason. You may not use any image in a manner that misrepresents the associated Pacific Biosciences product, service or technology or any associated characteristics, data, or properties thereof. You also may not use any image in a manner that denotes some representation or warranty (express, implied or statutory) from Pacific Biosciences of the product, service or technology. The rights granted by this Agreement are personal to you and are not transferable by you to another party.

You, and not Pacific Biosciences, are responsible for your use of the images. You acknowledge and agree that any misuse of the images or breach of this Agreement will cause Pacific Biosciences irreparable harm. Pacific Biosciences is either an owner or licensee of the image, and not an agent for the owner. You agree to give Pacific Biosciences a credit line as follows: "Courtesy of Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA" and also include any other credits or acknowledgments noted by Pacific Biosciences. You must include any copyright notice originally included with the images on all copies.

IMAGES ARE PROVIDED BY Pacific Biosciences ON AN "AS-IS" BASIS. Pacific Biosciences DISCLAIMS ALL REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, NON-INFRINGEMENT, OWNERSHIP, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL Pacific Biosciences BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OF ANY KIND WHATSOEVER WITH RESPECT TO THE IMAGES.

You agree that Pacific Biosciences may terminate your access to and use of the images located on the PacificBiosciences.com website at any time and without prior notice, if it considers you to have violated any of the terms of this Image Use Agreement. You agree to indemnify, defend and hold harmless Pacific Biosciences, its officers, directors, employees, agents, licensors, suppliers and any third party information providers to the Site from and against all losses, expenses, damages and costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, resulting from any violation by you of the terms of this Image Use Agreement or Pacific Biosciences' termination of your access to or use of the Site. Termination will not affect Pacific Biosciences' rights or your obligations which accrued before the termination.

I have read and understand, and agree to, the Image Usage Agreement.

I disagree and would like to return to the Pacific Biosciences home page.

Pacific Biosciences
Contact:

Explore scientific publications featuring PacBio data

Search Query

Author Search

Structural variation offers new home for disease associations and gene discovery

Drug Discovery and Development Magazine
ePub Ahead of Print

2017

Abstract +

Following completion of the Human Genome Project, most studies of human genetic variation have centered on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs are numerous in individual genomes and serve as useful genetic markers in association studies across a population. These markers have been leveraged to identify genetic loci for disease risk and draw associations with numerous traits of interest. Despite their usefulness, SNPs do not tell the whole story. For example, most SNPs are associated with only a small increased risk of disease, and they usually cannot identify on their own which genes are causal. This has resulted in what many researchers have referred to as missing or hidden heritability.

Amplification-free, CRISPR-Cas9 Targeted Enrichment and SMRT Sequencing of Repeat-Expansion Disease Causative Genomic Regions

bioRxiv
Preprint

2017

Abstract +

Targeted sequencing has proven to be an economical means of obtaining sequence information for one or more defined regions of a larger genome. However, most target enrichment methods require amplification. Some genomic regions, such as those with extreme GC content and repetitive sequences, are recalcitrant to faithful amplification. Yet, many human genetic disorders are caused by repeat expansions, including difficult to sequence tandem repeats. We have developed a novel, amplification-free enrichment technique that employs the CRISPR-Cas9 system for specific targeting multiple genomic loci. This method, in conjunction with long reads generated through Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing and unbiased coverage, enables enrichment and sequencing of complex genomic regions that cannot be investigated with other technologies. Using human genomic DNA samples, we demonstrate successful targeting of causative loci for Huntingtontextquoterights disease (HTT; CAG repeat), Fragile X syndrome (FMR1; CGG repeat), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (C9orf72; GGGGCC repeat), and spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10) (ATXN10; variable ATTCT repeat). The method, amenable to multiplexing across multiple genomic loci, uses an amplification-free approach that facilitates the isolation of hundreds of individual on-target molecules in a single SMRT Cell and accurate sequencing through long repeat stretches, regardless of extreme GC percent or sequence complexity content. Our novel targeted sequencing method opens new doors to genomic analyses independent of PCR amplification that will facilitate the study of repeat expansion disorders.

An integrated strategy combining DNA walking and NGS to detect GMOs.

Food Chemistry
232, 351-358

2017

Abstract +

Recently, we developed a DNA walking system for the detection and characterization of a broad spectrum of GMOs in routine analysis of food/feed matrices. Here, we present a new version with improved throughput and sensitivity by coupling the DNA walking system to Pacific Bioscience® Next-generation sequencing technology. The performance of the new strategy was thoroughly assessed through several assays. First, we tested its detection and identification capability on grains with high or low GMO content. Second, the potential impacts of food processing were investigated using rice noodle samples. Finally, GMO mixtures and a real-life sample were analyzed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed strategy in routine GMO analysis. In all tested samples, the presence of multiple GMOs was unambiguously proven by the characterization of transgene flanking regions and the combinations of elements that are typical for transgene constructs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Isoform evolution in primates through independent combination of alternative RNA processing events.

Molecular Biology and Evolution
34, 2453-2468

2017

Abstract +

Recent RNA-seq technology revealed thousands of splicing events that are under rapid evolution in primates, whereas the reliability of these events, as well as their combination on the isoform level, have not been adequately addressed due to its limited sequencing length. Here, we performed comparative transcriptome analyses in human and rhesus macaque cerebellum using single molecule long-read sequencing (Iso-seq) and matched RNA-seq. Besides 359 million RNA-seq reads, 4,165,527 Iso-seq reads were generated with a mean length of 14,875?bp, covering 11,466 human genes, and 10,159 macaque genes. With Iso-seq data, we substantially expanded the repertoire of alternative RNA processing events in primates, and found that intron retention and alternative polyadenylation are surprisingly more prevalent in primates than previously estimated. We then investigated the combinatorial mode of these alternative events at the whole-transcript level, and found that the combination of these events is largely independent along the transcript, leading to thousands of novel isoforms missed by current annotations. Notably, these novel isoforms are selectively constrained in general, and 1,119 isoforms have even higher expression than the previously annotated major isoforms in human, indicating that the complexity of the human transcriptome is still significantly underestimated. Comparative transcriptome analysis further revealed 502 genes encoding selectively constrained, lineage-specific isoforms in human but not in rhesus macaque, linking them to some lineage-specific functions. Overall, we propose that the independent combination of alternative RNA processing events has contributed to complex isoform evolution in primates, which provides a new foundation for the study of phenotypic difference among primates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

A sequel to Sanger: amplicon sequencing that scales

bioRxiv
Preprint

2017

Abstract +

Although high-throughput sequencers (HTS) have largely displaced their Sanger counterparts, the short read lengths and high error rates of most platforms constrain their utility for amplicon sequencing. The present study tests the capacity of single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing implemented on the SEQUEL platform to overcome these limitations, employing 658 bp amplicons of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as a model system. By examining templates from more than 5,000 species and 20,000 specimens, the performance of SMRT sequencing was tested with amplicons showing wide variation in GC composition and varied sequence attributes. SMRT and Sanger sequences were very similar, but SMRT sequencing provided more complete coverage, especially for amplicons with homopolymer tracts. Because it can characterize amplicon pools from 10,000 DNA extracts in a single run, the SEQUEL reduces costs 40-fold from Sanger analysis. Reflecting the capacity of each instrument to recover sequences from more than five million DNA extracts a year, this platform facilitates massive amplicon characterization.

Altered expression of the FMR1 splicing variants landscape in premutation carriers.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
1860, 1117-1126

2017

Abstract +

FMR1 premutation carriers (55-200 CGG repeats) are at risk for developing Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS), an adult onset neurodegenerative disorder. Approximately 20% of female carriers will develop Fragile X-associated Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (FXPOI), in addition to a number of clinical problems affecting premutation carriers throughout their life span. Marked elevation in FMR1 mRNA levels have been observed with premutation alleles resulting in RNA toxicity, the leading molecular mechanism proposed for the FMR1 associated disorders observed in premutation carriers. The FMR1 gene undergoes alternative splicing and we have recently reported that the relative abundance of all FMR1 mRNA isoforms is significantly increased in premutation carriers. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional FMR1 isoforms distribution pattern in different tissues and identified a total of 49 isoforms, some of which observed only in premutation carriers and which might play a role in the pathogenesis of FXTAS. Further, we investigated the distribution pattern and expression levels of the FMR1 isoforms in asymptomatic premutation carriers and in those with FXTAS and found no significant differences between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the characterization of the expression levels of the different FMR1 isoforms is fundamental for understanding the regulation of the FMR1 gene as imbalance in their expression could lead to an altered functional diversity with neurotoxic consequences. Their characterization will also help to elucidating the mechanism(s) by which "toxic gain of function" of the FMR1 mRNA may play a role in FXTAS and/or in the other FMR1-associated conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Parkinson’s disease associated with pure ATXN10 repeat

NPJ Parkinson's Disease
3

2017

Abstract +

Large, non-coding pentanucleotide repeat expansions of ATTCT in intron 9 of the ATXN10 gene typically cause progressive spinocerebellar ataxia with or without seizures and present neuropathologically with Purkinje cell loss resulting in symmetrical cerebellar atrophy. These ATXN10 repeat expansions can be interrupted by sequence motifs which have been attributed to seizures and are likely to act as genetic modifiers. We identified a Mexican kindred with multiple affected family members with ATXN10 expansions. Four affected family members showed clinical features of spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10). However, one affected individual presented with early-onset levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, and one family member carried a large repeat ATXN10 expansion, but was clinically unaffected. To characterize the ATXN10 repeat, we used a novel technology of single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9-based capture. We sequenced the entire span of ~5.3–7.0kb repeat expansions. The Parkinson’s patient carried an ATXN10 expansion with no repeat interruption motifs as well as an unaffected sister. In the siblings with typical SCA10, we found a repeat pattern of ATTCC repeat motifs that have not been associated with seizures previously. Our data suggest that the absence of repeat interruptions is likely a genetic modifier for the clinical presentation of L-Dopa responsive parkinsonism, whereas repeat interruption motifs contribute clinically to epilepsy. Repeat interruptions are important genetic modifiers of the clinical phenotype in SCA10. Advanced sequencing techniques now allow to better characterize the underlying genetic architecture for determining accurate phenotype–genotype correlations.

PacBio metabarcoding of fungi and other eukaryotes: errors, biases and perspectives.

The New Phytologist
ePub Ahead of Print

2017

Abstract +

Second-generation, high-throughput sequencing methods have greatly improved our understanding of the ecology of soil microorganisms, yet the short barcodes (< 500 bp) provide limited taxonomic and phylogenetic information for species discrimination and taxonomic assignment. Here, we utilized the third-generation Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RSII and Sequel instruments to evaluate the suitability of full-length internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcodes and longer rRNA gene amplicons for metabarcoding Fungi, Oomycetes and other eukaryotes in soil samples. Metabarcoding revealed multiple errors and biases: Taq polymerase substitution errors and mis-incorporating indels in sequencing homopolymers constitute major errors; sequence length biases occur during PCR, library preparation, loading to the sequencing instrument and quality filtering; primer-template mismatches bias the taxonomic profile when using regular and highly degenerate primers. The RSII and Sequel platforms enable the sequencing of amplicons up to 3000 bp, but the sequence quality remains slightly inferior to Illumina sequencing especially in longer amplicons. The full ITS barcode and flanking rRNA small subunit gene greatly improve taxonomic identification at the species and phylum levels, respectively. We conclude that PacBio sequencing provides a viable alternative for metabarcoding of organisms that are of relatively low diversity, require > 500-bp barcode for reliable identification or when phylogenetic approaches are intended. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

Gapless genome assembly of Colletotrichum higginsianum reveals chromosome structure and association of transposable elements with secondary metabolite gene clusters.

BMC Genomics
18, 667

2017

Abstract +

The ascomycete fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum causes anthracnose disease of brassica crops and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous versions of the genome sequence were highly fragmented, causing errors in the prediction of protein-coding genes and preventing the analysis of repetitive sequences and genome architecture. Here, we re-sequenced the genome using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology and, in combination with optical map data, this provided a gapless assembly of all twelve chromosomes except for the ribosomal DNA repeat cluster on chromosome 7. The more accurate gene annotation made possible by this new assembly revealed a large repertoire of secondary metabolism (SM) key genes (89) and putative biosynthetic pathways (77 SM gene clusters). The two mini-chromosomes differed from the ten core chromosomes in being repeat- and AT-rich and gene-poor but were significantly enriched with genes encoding putative secreted effector proteins. Transposable elements (TEs) were found to occupy 7% of the genome by length. Certain TE families showed a statistically significant association with effector genes and SM cluster genes and were transcriptionally active at particular stages of fungal development. All 24 subtelomeres were found to contain one of three highly-conserved repeat elements which, by providing sites for homologous recombination, were probably instrumental in four segmental duplications.The gapless genome of C. higginsianum provides access to repeat-rich regions that were previously poorly assembled, notably the mini-chromosomes and subtelomeres, and allowed prediction of the complete SM gene repertoire. It also provides insights into the potential role of TEs in gene and genome evolution and host adaptation in this asexual pathogen.

Long read reference genome-free reconstruction of a full-length transcriptome from Astragalus membranaceus reveals transcript variants involved in bioactive compound biosynthesis.

Cell Discovery
3, 17031

2017

Abstract +

Astragalus membranaceus, also known as Huangqi in China, is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine formulations from Astragalus membranaceus have been used to treat a wide range of illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, nephritis and cancers. Pharmacological studies have shown that immunomodulating, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities exist in the extract of Astragalus membranaceus. Therefore, characterising the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds in Astragalus membranaceus, such as Astragalosides, Calycosin and Calycosin-7-O-ß-d-glucoside, is of particular importance for further genetic studies of Astragalus membranaceus. In this study, we reconstructed the Astragalus membranaceus full-length transcriptomes from leaf and root tissues using PacBio Iso-Seq long reads. We identified 27 975 and 22 343 full-length unique transcript models in each tissue respectively. Compared with previous studies that used short read sequencing, our reconstructed transcripts are longer, and are more likely to be full-length and include numerous transcript variants. Moreover, we also re-characterised and identified potential transcript variants of genes involved in Astragalosides, Calycosin and Calycosin-7-O-ß-d-glucoside biosynthesis. In conclusion, our study provides a practical pipeline to characterise the full-length transcriptome for species without a reference genome and a useful genomic resource for exploring the biosynthesis of active compounds in Astragalus membranaceus.

De novo PacBio long-read and phased avian genome assemblies correct and add to reference genes generated with intermediate and short reads.

GigaScience
6, 1-16

2017

Abstract +

Reference-quality genomes are expected to provide a resource for studying gene structure, function, and evolution. However, often genes of interest are not completely or accurately assembled, leading to unknown errors in analyses or additional cloning efforts for the correct sequences. A promising solution is long-read sequencing. Here we tested PacBio-based long-read sequencing and diploid assembly for potential improvements to the Sanger-based intermediate-read zebra finch reference and Illumina-based short-read Anna's hummingbird reference, 2 vocal learning avian species widely studied in neuroscience and genomics. With DNA of the same individuals used to generate the reference genomes, we generated diploid assemblies with the FALCON-Unzip assembler, resulting in contigs with no gaps in the megabase range, representing 150-fold and 200-fold improvements over the current zebra finch and hummingbird references, respectively. These long-read and phased assemblies corrected and resolved what we discovered to be numerous misassemblies in the references, including missing sequences in gaps, erroneous sequences flanking gaps, base call errors in difficult-to-sequence regions, complex repeat structure errors, and allelic differences between the 2 haplotypes. These improvements were validated by single long-genome and transcriptome reads and resulted for the first time in completely resolved protein-coding genes widely studied in neuroscience and specialized in vocal learning species. These findings demonstrate the impact of long reads, sequencing of previously difficult-to-sequence regions, and phasing of haplotypes on generating the high-quality assemblies necessary for understanding gene structure, function, and evolution. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

A mobile pathogenicity chromosome in Fusarium oxysporum for infection of multiple cucurbit species.

Scientific Reports
7, 9042

2017

Abstract +

The genome of Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) consists of a set of eleven 'core' chromosomes, shared by most strains and responsible for housekeeping, and one or several accessory chromosomes. We sequenced a strain of Fo f.sp. radicis-cucumerinum (Forc) using PacBio SMRT sequencing. All but one of the core chromosomes were assembled into single contigs, and a chromosome that shows all the hallmarks of a pathogenicity chromosome comprised two contigs. A central part of this chromosome contains all identified candidate effector genes, including homologs of SIX6, SIX9, SIX11 and SIX 13. We show that SIX6 contributes to virulence of Forc. Through horizontal chromosome transfer (HCT) to a non-pathogenic strain, we also show that the accessory chromosome containing the SIX gene homologs is indeed a pathogenicity chromosome for cucurbit infection. Conversely, complete loss of virulence was observed in Forc016 strains that lost this chromosome. We conclude that also a non-wilt-inducing Fo pathogen relies on effector proteins for successful infection and that the Forc pathogenicity chromosome contains all the information necessary for causing root rot of cucurbits. Three out of nine HCT strains investigated have undergone large-scale chromosome alterations, reflecting the remarkable plasticity of Fo genomes.

PacBio sequencing reveals transposable element as a key contributor to genomic plasticity and virulence variation in Magnaporthe oryzae.

Molecular Plant
ePub Ahead of Print

2017

Abstract +

The sustainable cultivation of rice, which serves as staple food crop for more than half of the world's population, is under serious threat due to the huge yield losses inflicted by rice blast disease caused by the globally destructive fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae) (Dean et al., 2012, Nalley et al., 2016, Deng et al., 2017). This filamentous ascomycete fungus is also capable of causing blast infection on other economically important cereal crops, including wheat, millet, and barley, making it the world's most important plant pathogenic fungus (Zhong et al., 2016). The advent of whole-genome sequencing technology and the subsequent deployment of next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategies have successfully generated genome assemblies for over 50 isolates of M. oryzae, which have played an instrumental role in enhancing our understanding of how rice blast fungus undertakes host adaptation, host specificity, and host range expansion to overcome host resistance (Dean et al., 2005, Xue et al., 2012, Wu et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2016). However, research findings obtained from comparative genomic studies conducted using the NGS-assembled genome do not present an in-depth account of the genomic features that contribute to the prevailing genomic variations among M. oryzae species, because NGS assemblies are highly fragmented and lack most of the lineage-specific (LS) regions, which are more plastic than the core genome and enriched with repeats and effector proteins (Raffaele and Kamoun, 2012, Faino et al., 2016).

Mechanisms of surface antigenic variation in the human pathogenic fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii

bioRxiv
Preprint

2017

Abstract +

Background: Microbial pathogens commonly escape the human immune system by varying surface proteins. Here we investigated the mechanisms used for that purpose by Pneumocystis jirovecii. This uncultivable fungus is an obligate pulmonary pathogen which causes pneumonia in immuno-compromised individuals, a major life-threatening infection. Results: Long-read PacBio sequencing was used to assemble a set of subtelomeres of a single P. jirovecii strain from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen of a single patient. A total of 113 genes encoding surface proteins were identified, including 28 pseudogenes. These genes formed a subtelomeric gene superfamily which included five families encoding adhesive GPI-anchored glycoproteins, and one family encoding excreted glycoproteins. Numerical analyses suggested that diversification of the glycoproteins relies on mosaic genes created by ectopic recombination, and occurs only within each family. DNA motifs suggested that all genes are expressed independently, except those of the family encoding the most abundant surface glycoproteins which are subject to mutually exclusive expression. PCR analyses showed that exchange of the expressed gene of the latter family occurs frequently, possibly favoured by the location of the genes proximal to the telomere because this allows concomitant telomere exchange. Conclusions: Our observations suggest that (i) the structure of P. jirovecii cell surface is made of a complex mixture of different glycoproteins, (ii) genetic mosaicism ensures variation of the glycoproteins, and (iii) the strategy of the fungus consists in the continuous production of new subpopulations composed of cells which are antigenically different. This strategy is unique among human pathogens and may be associated to the particular niche within lungs which tolerates the presence of low abundant fungi within the natural microbiota.

Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo.

Nature
ePub Ahead of Print

2017

Abstract +

Developmental deconvolution of complex organs and tissues at the level of individual cells remains challenging. Non-invasive genetic fate mapping has been widely used, but the low number of distinct fluorescent marker proteins limits its resolution. Much higher numbers of cell markers have been generated using viral integration sites, viral barcodes, and strategies based on transposons and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing; however, temporal and tissue-specific induction of barcodes in situ has not been achieved. Here we report the development of an artificial DNA recombination locus (termed Polylox) that enables broadly applicable endogenous barcoding based on the Cre-loxP recombination system. Polylox recombination in situ reaches a practical diversity of several hundred thousand barcodes, allowing tagging of single cells. We have used this experimental system, combined with fate mapping, to assess haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fates in vivo. Classical models of haematopoietic lineage specification assume a tree with few major branches. More recently, driven in part by the development of more efficient single-cell assays and improved transplantation efficiencies, different models have been proposed, in which unilineage priming may occur in mice and humans at the level of HSCs. We have introduced barcodes into HSC progenitors in embryonic mice, and found that the adult HSC compartment is a mosaic of embryo-derived HSC clones, some of which are unexpectedly large. Most HSC clones gave rise to multilineage or oligolineage fates, arguing against unilineage priming, and suggesting coherent usage of the potential of cells in a clone. The spreading of barcodes, both after induction in embryos and in adult mice, revealed a basic split between common myeloid-erythroid development and common lymphocyte development, supporting the long-held but contested view of a tree-like haematopoietic structure.

Stay
Current

Visit our blog »