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Single molecule, full-length transcript sequencing provides insight into the extreme metabolism of ruby-throated hummingbird Archilochus colubris

bioRxiv
Preprint

2017

Abstract +

Hummingbirds can support their high metabolic rates exclusively by oxidizing ingested sugars, which is unsurprising given their sugar-rich nectar diet and use of energetically expensive hovering flight. However, they cannot rely on dietary sugars as a fuel during fasting periods, such as during the night, at first light, or when undertaking long-distance migratory flights, and must instead rely exclusively on onboard lipids. This metabolic flexibility is remarkable both in that the birds can switch between exclusive use of each fuel type within minutes and in that de novo lipogenesis from dietary sugar precursors is the principle way in which fat stores are built, sometimes at exceptionally high rates, such as during the few days prior to a migratory flight. The hummingbird hepatopancreas is the principle location of de novo lipogenesis and likely plays a key role in fuel selection, fuel switching, and glucose homeostasis. Yet understanding how this tissue, and the whole organism, achieves and moderates high rates of energy turnover is hampered by a fundamental lack of information regarding how genes coding for relevant enzymes differ in their sequence, expression, and regulation in these unique animals. To address this knowledge gap, we generated a de novo transcriptome of the hummingbird liver using PacBio full-length cDNA sequencing (Iso-Seq), yielding a total of 8.6Gb of sequencing data, or 2.6M reads from 4 different size fractions. We analyzed data using the SMRTAnalysis v3.1 Iso-Seq pipeline, including classification of reads and clustering of isoforms (ICE) followed by error-correction (Arrow). With COGENT, we clustered different isoforms into gene families to generate de novo gene contigs. We performed orthology analysis to identify closely related sequences between our transcriptome and other avian and human gene sets. We also aligned our transcriptome against the Calypte anna genome where possible. Finally, we closely examined homology of critical lipid metabolic genes between our transcriptome data and avian and human genomes. We confirmed high levels of sequence divergence within hummingbird lipogenic enzymes, suggesting a high probability of adaptive divergent function in the hepatic lipogenic pathways. Our results have leveraged cutting-edge technology and a novel bioinformatics pipeline to provide a compelling first direct look at the transcriptome of this incredible organism.

Single-molecule sequencing and chromatin conformation capture enable de novo reference assembly of the domestic goat genome.

Nature genetics
ePub ahead of print

2017

Abstract +

The decrease in sequencing cost and increased sophistication of assembly algorithms for short-read platforms has resulted in a sharp increase in the number of species with genome assemblies. However, these assemblies are highly fragmented, with many gaps, ambiguities, and errors, impeding downstream applications. We demonstrate current state of the art for de novo assembly using the domestic goat (Capra hircus) based on long reads for contig formation, short reads for consensus validation, and scaffolding by optical and chromatin interaction mapping. These combined technologies produced what is, to our knowledge, the most continuous de novo mammalian assembly to date, with chromosome-length scaffolds and only 649 gaps. Our assembly represents a ~400-fold improvement in continuity due to properly assembled gaps, compared to the previously published C. hircus assembly, and better resolves repetitive structures longer than 1 kb, representing the largest repeat family and immune gene complex yet produced for an individual of a ruminant species.

The genome of Chenopodium quinoa.

Nature
542, 307-312

2017

Abstract +

Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

Deletion-bias in DNA double-strand break repair differentially contributes to plant genome shrinkage.

The New Phytologist
ePub ahead of print

2017

Abstract +

In order to prevent genome instability, cells need to be protected by a number of repair mechanisms, including DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. The extent to which DSB repair, biased towards deletions or insertions, contributes to evolutionary diversification of genome size is still under debate. We analyzed mutation spectra in Arabidopsis thaliana and in barley (Hordeum vulgare) by PacBio sequencing of three DSB-targeted loci each, uncovering repair via gene conversion, single strand annealing (SSA) or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). Furthermore, phylogenomic comparisons between A. thaliana and two related species were used to detect naturally occurring deletions during Arabidopsis evolution. Arabidopsis thaliana revealed significantly more and larger deletions after DSB repair than barley, and barley displayed more and larger insertions. Arabidopsis displayed a clear net loss of DNA after DSB repair, mainly via SSA and NHEJ. Barley revealed a very weak net loss of DNA, apparently due to less active break-end resection and easier copying of template sequences into breaks. Comparative phylogenomics revealed several footprints of SSA in the A. thaliana genome. Quantitative assessment of DNA gain and loss through DSB repair processes suggests deletion-biased DSB repair causing ongoing genome shrinking in A. thaliana, whereas genome size in barley remains nearly constant.© 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) immunoglobulin heavy chain suggests the importance of clan III variable segments in repertoire diversity.

Developmental and comparative immunology
72, 57--68

2017

Abstract +

Manatees are a vulnerable, charismatic sentinel species from the evolutionarily divergent Afrotheria. Manatee health and resistance to infectious disease is of great concern to conservation groups, but little is known about their immune system. To develop manatee-specific tools for monitoring health, we first must have a general knowledge of how the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) chain locus is organized and transcriptionally expressed. Using the genomic scaffolds of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we characterized the potential IgH segmental diversity and constant region isotypic diversity and performed the first Afrotherian repertoire analysis. The Florida manatee has low V(D)J combinatorial diversity (3744 potential combinations) and few constant region isotypes. They also lack clan III V segments, which may have caused reduced VH segment numbers. However, we found productive somatic hypermutation concentrated in the complementarity determining regions. In conclusion, manatees have limited IGHV clan and combinatorial diversity. This suggests that clan III V segments are essential for maintaining IgH locus diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Towards long-read metagenomics: complete assembly of three novel genomes from bacteria dependent on a diazotrophic cyanobacterium in a freshwater lake co-culture.

Standards in Genomic Sciences
12, 9

2017

Abstract +

Here we report three complete bacterial genome assemblies from a PacBio shotgun metagenome of a co-culture from Upper Klamath Lake, OR. Genome annotations and culture conditions indicate these bacteria are dependent on carbon and nitrogen fixation from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, whose genome was assembled to draft-quality. Due to their taxonomic novelty relative to previously sequenced bacteria, we have temporarily designated these bacteria as incertae sedis Hyphomonadaceae strain UKL13-1 (3,501,508 bp and 56.12% GC), incertae sedis Betaproteobacterium strain UKL13-2 (3,387,087 bp and 54.98% GC), and incertae sedis Bacteroidetes strain UKL13-3 (3,236,529 bp and 37.33% GC). Each genome consists of a single circular chromosome with no identified plasmids. When compared with binned Illumina assemblies of the same three genomes, there was ~7% discrepancy in total genome length. Gaps where Illumina assemblies broke were often due to repetitive elements. Within these missing sequences were essential genes and genes associated with a variety of functional categories. Annotated gene content reveals that both Proteobacteria are aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, with Betaproteobacterium UKL13-2 potentially capable of phototrophic oxidation of sulfur compounds. Both proteobacterial genomes contain transporters suggesting they are scavenging fixed nitrogen from A. flos-aquae in the form of ammonium. Bacteroidetes UKL13-3 has few completely annotated biosynthetic pathways, and has a comparatively higher proportion of unannotated genes. The genomes were detected in only a few other freshwater metagenomes, suggesting that these bacteria are not ubiquitous in freshwater systems. Our results indicate that long-read sequencing is a viable method for sequencing dominant members from low-diversity microbial communities, and should be considered for environmental metagenomics when conditions meet these requirements.

Genetic stability of genome-scale deoptimized RNA virus vaccine candidates under selective pressure.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
114, E386-E395

2017

Abstract +

Recoding viral genomes by numerous synonymous but suboptimal substitutions provides live attenuated vaccine candidates. These vaccine candidates should have a low risk of deattenuation because of the many changes involved. However, their genetic stability under selective pressure is largely unknown. We evaluated phenotypic reversion of deoptimized human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine candidates in the context of strong selective pressure. Codon pair deoptimized (CPD) versions of RSV were attenuated and temperature-sensitive. During serial passage at progressively increasing temperature, a CPD RSV containing 2,692 synonymous mutations in 9 of 11 ORFs did not lose temperature sensitivity, remained genetically stable, and was restricted at temperatures of 34 °C/35 °C and above. However, a CPD RSV containing 1,378 synonymous mutations solely in the polymerase L ORF quickly lost substantial attenuation. Comprehensive sequence analysis of virus populations identified many different potentially deattenuating mutations in the L ORF as well as, surprisingly, many appearing in other ORFs. Phenotypic analysis revealed that either of two competing mutations in the virus transcription antitermination factor M2-1, outside of the CPD area, substantially reversed defective transcription of the CPD L gene and substantially restored virus fitness in vitro and in case of one of these two mutations, also in vivo. Paradoxically, the introduction into Min L of one mutation each in the M2-1, N, P, and L proteins resulted in a virus with increased attenuation in vivo but increased immunogenicity. Thus, in addition to providing insights on the adaptability of genome-scale deoptimized RNA viruses, stability studies can yield improved synthetic RNA virus vaccine candidates.

Antibody 10-1074 suppresses viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals.

Nature Medicine
ePub ahead of print

2017

Abstract +

Monoclonal antibody 10-1074 targets the V3 glycan supersite on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein. It is among the most potent anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies isolated so far. Here we report on its safety and activity in 33 individuals who received a single intravenous infusion of the antibody. 10-1074 was well tolerated and had a half-life of 24.0 d in participants without HIV-1 infection and 12.8 d in individuals with HIV-1 infection. Thirteen individuals with viremia received the highest dose of 30 mg/kg 10-1074. Eleven of these participants were 10-1074-sensitive and showed a rapid decline in viremia by a mean of 1.52 log10 copies/ml. Virologic analysis revealed the emergence of multiple independent 10-1074-resistant viruses in the first weeks after infusion. Emerging escape variants were generally resistant to the related V3-specific antibody PGT121, but remained sensitive to antibodies targeting nonoverlapping epitopes, such as the anti-CD4-binding-site antibodies 3BNC117 and VRC01. The results demonstrate the safety and activity of 10-1074 in humans and support the idea that antibodies targeting the V3 glycan supersite might be useful for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection.

Bacterial microbiota of Kazakhstan cheese revealed by single molecule real time (SMRT) sequencing and its comparison with Belgian, Kalmykian and Italian artisanal cheeses

BMC Microbiology
17, 13

2017

Abstract +

In Kazakhstan, traditional artisanal cheeses have a long history and are widely consumed. The unique characteristics of local artisanal cheeses are almost completely preserved. However, their microbial communities have rarely been reported. The current study firstly generated the Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing bacterial diversity profiles of 6 traditional artisanal cheese samples of Kazakhstan origin, followed by comparatively analyzed the microbiota composition between the current dataset and those from cheeses originated from Belgium, Russian Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmykia) and Italy.

Comprehensive genome analysis of carbapenemase- producing Enterobacter spp.: new insights into phylogeny, population structure and resistance mechanisms.

mBio
7, e02093-16

2016

Abstract +

Knowledge regarding the genomic structure of Enterobacter spp., the second most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, remains limited. Here we sequenced 97 clinical Enterobacter species isolates that were both carbapenem susceptible and resistant from various geographic regions to decipher the molecular origins of carbapenem resistance and to understand the changing phylogeny of these emerging and drug-resistant pathogens. Of the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 30 possessed blaKPC-2, 40 had blaKPC-3, 2 had blaKPC-4, and 2 had blaNDM-1 Twenty-three isolates were carbapenem susceptible. Six genomes were sequenced to completion, and their sizes ranged from 4.6 to 5.1 Mbp. Phylogenomic analysis placed 96 of these genomes, 351 additional Enterobacter genomes downloaded from NCBI GenBank, and six newly sequenced type strains into 19 phylogenomic groups-18 groups (A to R) in the Enterobacter cloacae complex and Enterobacter aerogenes Diverse mechanisms underlying the molecular evolutionary trajectory of these drug-resistant Enterobacter spp. were revealed, including the acquisition of an antibiotic resistance plasmid, followed by clonal spread, horizontal transfer of blaKPC-harboring plasmids between different phylogenomic groups, and repeated transposition of the blaKPC gene among different plasmid backbones. Group A, which comprises multilocus sequence type 171 (ST171), was the most commonly identified (23% of isolates). Genomic analysis showed that ST171 isolates evolved from a common ancestor and formed two different major clusters; each acquiring unique blaKPC-harboring plasmids, followed by clonal expansion. The data presented here represent the first comprehensive study of phylogenomic interrogation and the relationship between antibiotic resistance and plasmid discrimination among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp., demonstrating the genetic diversity and complexity of the molecular mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance in this genus.Enterobacter spp., especially carbapenemase-producing Enterobacter spp., have emerged as a clinically significant cause of nosocomial infections. However, only limited information is available on the distribution of carbapenem resistance across this genus. Augmenting this problem is an erroneous identification of Enterobacter strains because of ambiguous typing methods and imprecise taxonomy. In this study, we used a whole-genome-based comparative phylogenetic approach to (i) revisit and redefine the genus Enterobacter and (ii) unravel the emergence and evolution of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-harboring Enterobacter spp. Using genomic analysis of 447 sequenced strains, we developed an improved understanding of the species designations within this complex genus and identified the diverse mechanisms driving the molecular evolution of carbapenem resistance. The findings in this study provide a solid genomic framework that will serve as an important resource in the future development of molecular diagnostics and in supporting drug discovery programs. Copyright © 2016 Chavda et al.

Paired CRISPR/Cas9 guide-RNAs enable high-throughput deletion scanning (ScanDel) of a Mendelian disease locus for functionally critical non-coding elements

bioRxiv
Preprint

2016

Abstract +

The extent to which distal non-coding mutations contribute to Mendelian disease remains a major unknown in human genetics. Given that a genetextquoterights in vivo function can be appropriately modeled in vitro, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing enables the large-scale perturbation of distal non-coding regions to identify functional elements in their native context. However, early attempts at such screens have relied on one individual guide RNA (gRNA) per cell, resulting in sparse mutagenesis with minimal redundancy across regions of interest. To address this, we developed a system that uses pairs of gRNAs to program thousands of kilobase-scale deletions that scan across a targeted region in a tiling fashion (textquotedblleftScanDeltextquotedblright). As a proof-of-concept, we applied ScanDel to program 4,342 overlapping 1- and 2- kilobase (Kb) deletions that tile a 206 Kb region centered on HPRT1, the gene underlying Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, with median 27-fold redundancy per base. Programmed deletions were functionally assayed by selecting for loss of HPRT1 function with 6-thioguanine. HPRT1 exons served as positive controls, and all were successfully identified as functionally critical by the screen. Remarkably, HPRT1 function appeared robust to deletion of any intergenic or deeply intronic non-coding region across the 206 Kb locus, indicating that proximal regulatory sequences are sufficient for its expression. A sparser mutagenesis screen of the same 206 Kb with individual gRNAs also failed to identify critical distal regulatory elements. Although our screen did find programmed deletions and individual gRNAs with putative functional consequences that targeted exon-proximal non-coding sequences (e.g. the promoter), long-read sequencing revealed that this signal was driven almost entirely by rare, unexpected deletions that extended into exonic sequence. These targeted validation experiments defined a small region surrounding the transcriptional start site as the only non-coding sequence essential to HPRT1 function. Overall, our results suggest that distal regulatory elements are not critical for HPRT1 expression, and underscore the necessity of comprehensive edited-locus genotyping for validating the results of CRISPR screens. The application of ScanDel to additional loci will enable more insight into the extent to which the disruption of distal non-coding elements contributes to Mendelian diseases. In addition, dense, redundant, large-scale deletion scanning with gRNA pairs will facilitate a deeper understanding of endogenous gene regulation in the human genome.

Mechanisms of evolution in high-consequence drug resistance plasmids.

mBio
7, e01987-16

2016

Abstract +

The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. This analysis revealed that plasmid reorganizations occurring in the natural context of colonization of human hosts were overwhelmingly driven by genetic rearrangements carried out by replicative transposons working in concert with the process of homologous recombination. A more complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary forces driving rearrangements in resistance plasmids may lead to fundamentally new strategies to address the problem of antibiotic resistance.The spread of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria is a serious public health threat, as it can critically limit the types of drugs that can be used to treat infected patients. In particular, carbapenem-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae family are responsible for a significant and growing burden of morbidity and mortality. Here, we report on the mechanisms underlying the evolution of several plasmids carried by previously sequenced clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH CC). Our ability to track genetic rearrangements that occurred within resistance plasmids was dependent on accurate annotation of the mobile genetic elements within the plasmids, which was greatly aided by access to long-read DNA sequencing data and knowledge of their mechanisms. Mobile genetic elements such as transposons and integrons have been strongly associated with the rapid spread of genes responsible for antibiotic resistance. Understanding the consequences of their actions allowed us to establish unambiguous evolutionary relationships between plasmids in the analysis set. Copyright © 2016 He et al.

Long-read whole genome sequencing identifies causal structural variation in a Mendelian disease

bioRxiv
Preprint

2016

Abstract +

Current clinical genomics assays primarily utilize short-read sequencing (SRS), which offers high throughput, high base accuracy, and low cost per base. SRS has, however, limited ability to evaluate tandem repeats, regions with high [GC] or [AT] content, highly polymorphic regions, highly paralogous regions, and large-scale structural variants. Long-read sequencing (LRS) has complementary strengths and offers a means to discover overlooked genetic variation in patients undiagnosed by SRS. To evaluate LRS, we selected a patient who presented with multiple neoplasia and cardiac myxomata suggestive of Carney complex for whom targeted clinical gene testing and whole genome SRS were negative. Low coverage whole genome LRS was performed on the PacBio Sequel system and structural variants were called, yielding 6,971 deletions and 6,821 insertions > 50bp. Filtering for variants that are absent in an unrelated control and that overlap a coding exon of a disease gene identified three deletions and three insertions. One of these, a heterozygous 2,184 bp deletion, overlaps the first coding exon of PRKAR1A, which is implicated in autosomal dominant Carney complex. This variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and was classified as pathogenic using standard criteria for the interpretation of sequence variants. This first successful application of whole genome LRS to identify a pathogenic variant suggests that LRS has significant potential to identify disease-causing structural variation. We recommend larger studies to evaluate the diagnostic yield of LRS, and the development of a comprehensive catalog of common human structural variation to support future studies.

Targeted capture and sequencing of gene-sized DNA molecules.

BioTechniques
61, 315-322

2016

Abstract +

Targeted capture provides an efficient and sensitive means for sequencing specific genomic regions in a high-throughput manner. To date, this method has mostly been used to capture exons from the genome (the exome) using short insert libraries and short-read sequencing technology, enabling the identification of genetic variants or new members of large gene families. Sequencing larger molecules results in the capture of whole genes, including intronic and intergenic sequences that are typically more polymorphic and allow the resolution of the gene structure of homologous genes, which are often clustered together on the chromosome. Here, we describe an improved method for the capture and single-molecule sequencing of DNA molecules as large as 7 kb by means of size selection and optimized PCR conditions. Our approach can be used to capture, sequence, and distinguish between similar members of the NB-LRR gene family-key genes in plant immune systems.

A comprehensive approach to expression of L1 loci.

Nucleic Acids Research
ePub ahead of print

2016

Abstract +

L1 elements represent the only currently active, autonomous retrotransposon in the human genome, and they make major contributions to human genetic instability. The vast majority of the 500 000 L1 elements in the genome are defective, and only a relatively few can contribute to the retrotransposition process. However, there is currently no comprehensive approach to identify the specific loci that are actively transcribed separate from the excess of L1-related sequences that are co-transcribed within genes. We have developed RNA-Seq procedures, as well as a 1200 bp 5' RACE product coupled with PACBio sequencing that can identify the specific L1 loci that contribute most of the L1-related RNA reads. At least 99% of L1-related sequences found in RNA do not arise from the L1 promoter, instead representing pieces of L1 incorporated in other cellular RNAs. In any given cell type a relatively few active L1 loci contribute to the 'authentic' L1 transcripts that arise from the L1 promoter, with significantly different loci seen expressed in different tissues.© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

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