Explore scientific publications featuring PacBio long-read sequencing data
Browse publications: Page 638 of 638 pages. Total publications: 6374
The confocal detection principle is extended to a highly parallel optical system that continuously analyzes thousands of concurrent sample locations. This is achieved through the use of a holographic laser illumination multiplexer combined with a confocal pinhole array before a prism dispersive element used to provide spectroscopic information from each confocal volume. The system is demonstrated to detect and identify single fluorescent molecules from each of several thousand independent confocal volumes in real time.
Metallic subwavelength apertures can be used in epi-illumination fluorescence to achieve focal volume confinement. Because of the near field components inherent to small metallic structures, observation volumes are formed that are much smaller than the conventional diffraction limited volume attainable by high numerical aperture far field optics (circa a femtoliter). Observation volumes in the range of 10-4fl have been reported previously. Such apertures can be used for single-molecule detection at relatively high concentrations (up to 20µM) of fluorophores. Here, we present a novel fabrication of metallic subwavelength apertures in the visible range. Using a new electron beamlithography process, uniform arrays of such apertures can be manufactured efficiently in large numbers with diameters in the range of 60–100nm. The apertures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, focused ion beam cross sections/transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements, which confirmed their geometry and optical confinement. Process throughput can be further increased using deep ultraviolet photolithography to replace electron beamlithography. This enables the production of aperture arrays in a high volume manufacturing environment.
Selective aluminum passivation for targeted immobilization of single DNA polymerase molecules in zero-mode waveguide nanostructures.
Optical nanostructures have enabled the creation of subdiffraction detection volumes for single-molecule fluorescence microscopy. Their applicability is extended by the ability to place molecules in the confined observation volume without interfering with their biological function. Here, we demonstrate that processive DNA synthesis thousands of bases in length was carried out by individual DNA polymerase molecules immobilized in the observation volumes of zero-mode waveguides (ZMWs) in high-density arrays. Selective immobilization of polymerase to the fused silica floor of the ZMW was achieved by passivation of the metal cladding surface using polyphosphonate chemistry, producing enzyme density contrasts of glass over aluminum in excess of 400:1. Yields of single-molecule occupancies of approximately 30% were obtained for a range of ZMW diameters (70-100 nm). Results presented here support the application of immobilized single DNA polymerases in ZMW arrays for long-read-length DNA sequencing.
Optical approaches for observing the dynamics of single molecules have required pico- to nanomolar concentrations of fluorophore in order to isolate individual molecules. However, many biologically relevant processes occur at micromolar ligand concentrations, necessitating a reduction in the conventional observation volume by three orders of magnitude. We show that arrays of zero-mode waveguides consisting of subwavelength holes in a metal film provide a simple and highly parallel means for studying single-molecule dynamics at micromolar concentrations with microsecond temporal resolution. We present observations of DNA polymerase activity as an example of the effectiveness of zero-mode waveguides for performing single-molecule experiments at high concentrations.