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Comprehensive structural and copy-number variant detection with long reads

69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics

2019

Abstract +

To comprehensively detect large variants in human genomes, we have extended pbsv – a structural variant caller for long reads – to call copy-number variants (CNVs) from read-clipping and read-depth signatures. In human germline benchmark samples, we detect more than 300 CNVs spanning around 10 Mb, and we call hundreds of additional events in re-arranged cancer samples. Long-read sequencing of diverse humans has revealed more than 20,000 insertion, deletion, and inversion structural variants spanning more than 12 Mb in a typical human genome. Most of these variants are too large to detect with short reads and too small for array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH). While the standard approaches to calling structural variants with long reads thrive in the 50 bp to 10 kb size range, they tend to miss exactly the large (>50 kb) copy-number variants that are called more readily with aCGH and short reads. Standard algorithms rely on reference-based mapping of reads that fully span a variant or on de novo assembly; and copy-number variants are often too large to be spanned by a single read and frequently involve segmentally duplicated sequence that is not yet included in most de novo assemblies.

Detection and phasing of small variants in Genome in a Bottle samples with highly accurate long reads

69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics

2019

Abstract +

Introduction: Long-read PacBio SMRT Sequencing has been applied successfully to assemble genomes and detect structural variants. However, due to high raw read error rates of 10-15%, it has remained difficult to call small variants from long reads. Recent improvements in library preparation, sequencing chemistry, and instrument yield have increased length, accuracy, and throughput of PacBio Circular Consensus (CCS) reads, resulting in 10-20 kb “HiFi” reads with mean read quality above 99%. Materials and Methods: We sequenced 11 kb size-selected libraries from the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) human reference samples HG001, HG002, and HG005 to approximately 30-fold coverage on the Sequel II System with six SMRT Cells 8M each. The CCS algorithm was used to generate highly accurate (average 99.8%) reads of mean length 10-11 kb, which were then mapped to the hs37d5 reference with pbmm2. We detected small variants using Google DeepVariant and compared these variant calls to GIAB benchmarks. Small variants were then phased with WhatsHap. Results: With these long, highly accurate CCS reads, DeepVariant achieves high SNP and Indel accuracy against the GIAB benchmark truth set for all three reference samples. Using WhatsHap, small variants were phased into haplotype blocks with N50 from 82 to 146 kb. The improved mappability of long reads allows detection of variants in many medically relevant genes such as CYP2D6and PMS2that have proven 'difficult-to-map' with short reads. We show that small variant precision and recall remain high down to 15-fold coverage. Conclusions: These highly accurate long reads combine the mappability of noisy long reads with the accuracy and small variant detection utility of short reads, which will allow the detection and phasing of variants in regions that have proven recalcitrant to short read sequencing and variant detection.

Full-Length RNA-seq of Alzheimer brain on the PacBio Sequel II System

69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics

2019

Abstract +

The PacBio Iso-Seq method produces high-quality, full-length transcripts and can characterize a whole transcriptome with a single SMRT Cell 8M. We sequenced an Alzheimer whole brain sample on a single SMRT Cell 8M on the Sequel II System. Using the Iso-Seq bioinformatics pipeline followed by SQANTI2 analysis, we detected 162,290 transcripts for 17,670 genes up to 14 kb in length. More than 60% of the transcripts are novel isoforms, the vast majority of which have supporting cage peak data and polyadenylation signals, demonstrating the utility of long-read sequencing for human disease research.

High-quality human genomes achieved through HiFi sequence data and FALCON-Unzip assembly

69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics

2019

Abstract +

De novo assemblies of human genomes from accurate (85-90%), continuous long reads (CLR) now approach the human reference genome in contiguity, but the assembly base pair accuracy is typically below QV40 (99.99%), an order-of-magnitude lower than the standard for finished references. The base pair errors complicate downstream interpretation, particularly false positive indels that lead to false gene loss through frameshifts. PacBio HiFi sequence data, which are both long (>10 kb) and very accurate (>99.9%) at the individual sequence read level, enable a new paradigm in human genome assembly. Haploid human assemblies using HiFi data achieve similar contiguity to those using CLR data and are highly accurate at the base level1. Furthermore, HiFi assemblies resolve more high-identity sequences such as segmental duplications2. To enable HiFi assembly in diploid human samples, we have extended the FALCON-Unzip assembler to work directly with HiFi reads. Here we present phased human diploid genome assemblies from HiFi sequencing of HG002, HG005, and the Vertebrate Genome Project (VGP) mHomSap1 trio on the PacBio Sequel II System. The HiFi assemblies all exceed the VGP’s quality guidelines, approaching QV50 (99.999%) accuracy. For HG002, 60% of the genome was haplotype-resolved, with phase-block N50 of 143Kbp and phasing accuracy of 99.6%. The overall mean base accuracy of the assembly was QV49.7. In conclusion, HiFi data show great promise towards complete, contiguous, and accurate diploid human assemblies.

Structural variant in the RNA Binding Motif Protein, X-Linked 2 (RBMX2) gene found to be linked to bipolar disorder

69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics

2019

Abstract +

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a phenotypically and genetically complex neurological disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. There is compelling evidence from family, twin and adoption studies supporting the involvement of a genetic predisposition with estimated heritability up to ~ 80%. The risk in first-degree relatives is ten times higher than in the general population. Linkage and association studies have implicated multiple putative chromosomal loci for BD susceptibility, however no disease genes have yet to be identified. Here, we have fully characterized a ~12 Mb significantly linked (lod score=3.54) genomic region on chromosome Xq24-q27 in an extended family from a genetic isolate that was using long-read single molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing. The family segregates BD in at least 4 generations with 16 individuals out of 61 affected. Thus, this family portrays a highly elevated reoccurrence risk compared to the general population. It is expected that the genetic complexity would be reduced in isolated populations, even in genetically complex disorders such as BD, as in the case of this extended family. We selected 16 key individuals from the X-chromosomally linked family to be sequenced. These selected individuals either carried the disease haplotype, were non-carriers of the disease haplotype, or served as married-in controls. We designed a Nimblegen capture array enriching for 5-9 kb fragments spanning the entire 12 Mb region that were then sequenced using long-read SMRT sequencing to screen for causative structural variants (SVs) explaining the increased risk for BD in this extended family. Altogether, 192 SVs were detected in the critically linked region however most of these represented common variants that could be seen across many of the family members regardless of the disease status. One SV stood out that showed perfect segregation among all affected individuals that were carriers of the disease haplotype. This was a 330bp Alu deletion in intron 4 of the RNA Binding Motif Protein, X-Linked 2 (RBMX2) gene that has previously been shown to play a central role in brain development and function. Moreover, Alu elements in general have also previously been associated with at least 37 neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. In order to validate the finding and the functionality of the identified SV further studies like isoform characterization are warranted.

The value of long read amplicon sequencing for clinical applications

69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics

2019

Abstract +

NGS is commonly used for amplicon sequencing in clinical applications to study genetic disorders and detect disease-causing mutations. This approach can be plagued by limited ability to phase sequence variants and makes interpretation of sequence data difficult when pseudogenes are present. Long-read highly accurate amplicon sequencing can provide very accurate, efficient, high throughput (through multiplexing) sequences from single molecules, with read lengths largely limited by PCR. Data is easy to interpret; phased variants and breakpoints are present within high fidelity individual reads. Here we show SMRT Sequencing of the PMS2 and OPN1 (MW and LW) genes using the Sequel System. Homologous regions make NGS and MLPA results very difficult to interpret.

TLA & long-read sequencing: Efficient targeted sequencing and phasing of the CFTR gene

69th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics

2019

Abstract +

Background: The sequencing and haplotype phasing of entire gene sequences improves the understanding of the genetic basis of disease and drug response. One example is cystic fibrosis (CF). Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapies have revolutionized CF treatment, but only in a minority of CF subjects. Observed heterogeneity in CFTR modulator efficacy is related to the range of CFTR mutations; revertant mutations can modify the response to CFTR modulators, and other intronic variations in the ~200 kb CFTR gene have been linked to disease severity. Heterogeneity in the CFTR gene may also be linked to differential responses to CFTR modulators. The Targeted Locus Amplification (TLA) technology from Cergentis can be used to selectively amplify, sequence and phase the entire CFTR gene. With PacBio long-read SMRT Sequencing, TLA amplicons are sequenced intact and long-range phasing information of all fragments in entire amplicons is retrieved. Experimental Design and Methods: The TLA process produces amplicons consisting of 5-10 proximity ligated DNA fragments. TLA was performed on cell line and genomic DNA from Coriell GM12878, which has few heterozygous SNVs in CFTR, and the IB3 cell line, with known haplotypes but heterozygous for the delta508 mutation. All sample types were prepared with high and low density TLA primer sets, targeting coverage of >100 kb of the CFTR gene. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the power and utility of TLA with long-read SMRT Sequencing as a valuable research tool in sequencing and phasing across very long regions of the human genome. This process can be done in an efficient manner, multiplexing multiple genes and samples per SMRT Cell in a process amenable to high-throughput sequencing.

Sequencing the previously unsequenceable using amplification-free targeted enrichment powered by CRISPR/Cas9

AGBT Precision Health

2019

Abstract +

Genomic regions with extreme base composition bias and repetitive sequences have long proven challenging for targeted enrichment methods, as they rely upon some form of amplification. Similarly, most DNA sequencing technologies struggle to faithfully sequence regions of low complexity. This has especially been true for repeat expansion disorders such as Fragile X syndrome, Huntington’s disease and various Ataxias, where the repetitive elements range from several hundreds of bases to tens of kilobases. We have developed a robust, amplification-free targeted enrichment technique, called No-Amp Targeted Sequencing, that employs the CRISPR/Cas9 system. In conjunction with Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing, which delivers long reads spanning the entire repeat expansion, high consensus accuracy, and uniform coverage, these previously inaccessible regions are now accessible. This method is completely amplification-free, therefore removing any PCR errors and biases from the experiment. Furthermore, this technique also preserves native DNA molecules, allowing for direct detection and characterization of epigenetic signatures. The No-Amp method is a two-day protocol, compatible with multiplexing of multiple targets and samples in a single reaction, using as little as 1 µg of genomic DNA input per sample. We have successfully targeted a number of repeat expansion disorder loci (HTT, FMR1, ATXN10, C9orf72) with alleles as long as >2700 repeat unites (>13 kb). Using the No-Amp method we have isolated hundreds of individual on-target molecules, allowing for reliable repeat size estimation, mosaicism detection and identification of interruption sequences – all aspects of repeat expansion disorders which are important for better understanding the underlying disease mechanisms.

Unbiased characterization of metagenome composition and function using HiFi sequencing on the PacBio Sequel II System

CSHL Microbiome

2019

Abstract +

Recent work comparing metagenomic sequencing methods indicates that a comprehensive picture of the taxonomic and functional diversity of complex communities will be difficult to achieve with short-read technology alone. While the lower cost of short reads has enabled greater sequencing depth, the greater contiguity of long-read assemblies and lack of GC bias in SMRT Sequencing has enabled better gene finding. However, since long-read assembly requires high coverage for error correction, the benefits of unbiased coverage have in the past been lost for low abundance species. SMRT Sequencing performance improvements and the introduction of the Sequel II System has enabled a new, high throughput data type uniquely suited to metagenome characterization: HiFi reads. HiFi reads combine high accuracy with read lengths up to 15 kb, eliminating the need for assembly for most microbiome applications, including functional profiling, gene discovery, and metabolic pathway reconstruction. Here we present the application of the HiFi data type to enable a new method of analyzing metagenomes that does not require assembly.

Single cell isoform sequencing (scIso-Seq) identifies novel full-length mRNAs and cell type-specific expression

ENCODE 2019

2019

Abstract +

Single cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) is an emerging field for characterizing cell heterogeneity in complex tissues. However, most scRNA-seq methodologies are limited to gene count information due to short read lengths. Here, we combine the microfluidics scRNA-seq technique, Drop-Seq, with PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing to generate full-length transcript isoforms that can be confidently assigned to individual cells. We generated single cell Iso-Seq (scIso-Seq) libraries for chimp and human cerebral organoid samples on the Dolomite Nadia platform and sequenced each library with two SMRT Cells 8M on the PacBio Sequel II System. We developed a bioinformatics pipeline to identify, classify, and filter full-length isoforms at the single-cell level. We show that scIso-Seq reveals full-length isoform information not accessible using short reads that can reveal differences between cell types and amongst different species.

Comparison of sequencing approaches applied to complex soil metagenomes to resolve proteins of interest

ASM Microbe 2019

2019

Abstract +

Background: Long-read sequencing presents several potential advantages for providing more complete gene profiling of metagenomic samples. Long reads can capture multiple genes in a single read, and longer reads typically result in assemblies with better contiguity, especially for higher abundance organisms. However, a major challenge with using long reads has been the higher cost per base, which may lead to insufficient coverage of low-abundance species. Additionally, lower single-pass accuracy can make gene discovery for low-abundance organisms difficult. Methods: To evaluate the pros and cons of long reads for metagenomics, we directly compared PacBio and Illumina sequencing on a soil-derived sample, which included spike-in controls of known concentrations of pure referenced samples. For PacBio sequencing, a 10 kb library was sequenced on the Sequel System with 3.0 chemistry. Highly accurate long reads (HiFi reads) with Q20 and higher were generated for downstream analyses using PacBio Circular Consensus Sequencing (CCS) mode. Results were assessed according to the following criteria: DNA extraction capacity, bioinformatics pipeline status, % of proteins with ambiguous AA’s, total unique error-free genes/$1000, total proteins observed in spike-ins/$1000, proteins of interest/$1000, median length of contigs with proteins, and assembly requirements. Results: Both methods had areas of superior performance. DNA extraction capacity was higher for Illumina, the bioinformatics pipeline is well-tested, and there was a lower proportion of proteins with ambiguous AA’s. On the other hand, with PacBio, twice as many unique error-free genes, twice as many total proteins from spike-ins, and ~6 times more proteins of interest were found per $1000 cost. PacBio data produced on average 5 times longer contigs capturing proteins of interest. Additionally, assembly was not required for gene or protein finding, as was the case with Illumina data. Conclusions: In this comparison of PacBio Sequel System with Illumina NextSeq on a complex microbiome, we conclude that the sequencing system of choice may vary, depending on the goals and resources for the project. PacBio sequencing requires a longer DNA extraction method, and the bioinformatics pipeline may require development. On the other hand, the Sequel System generates hundreds of thousands of long HiFi reads per SMRT Cell, producing more genes, more proteins, and longer contigs, thereby offering more information about the metagenomic samples for a lower cost.

High-resolution evaluation of gut microbiota associated with intestinal maturation in early preterm neonates

ASM Microbe 2019

2019

Abstract +

Leaky gut, or intestinal barrier immaturity with elevated intestinal permeability, is the proximate cause of susceptibility to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. We recently revealed intestinal barrier maturation was associated with exclusive breastfeeding, less antibiotic exposure, most importantly, altered composition of the gut microbiota. However, sequencing short regions of 16S rRNA gene amplicon failed to identify the specific bacterial groups associated with improved or aberrant intestinal permeability. In this study, we performed high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the full length 16S rRNA gene with single-nucleotide resolution for a cohort of 66 preterm neonates born at 24-33 weeks of gestation who had stool collected daily for 21 postnatal days. We assessed their intestinal permeability by measuring urine non-metabolized sugar probes lactulose and rhamnose during the first 7-10 days of life. We observed that intestinal barrier maturation was positively correlated with changes in specific amplicon sequence variants of species of Clostridiales and Bifidobacterium, while leaky gut was associated with specific strains of Escherichia coli. These results are promising in that they support the use of stool microbial biomarkers for the rapid, non-invasive, and cost-effective assessment of intestinal maturation in neonates.

Microbiome profiling at the strain level using rRNA amplicons

ASM Microbe 2019

2019

Abstract +

Strain level microbiome profiling is needed for a full understanding of how microbial communities influence human health. Microbiome profiling of rRNA gene amplicons is a well-understood method that is rapid and inexpensive, but standard 16S rRNA gene methods generally cannot differentiate closely related strains. Whole genome/shotgun microbiome profiling is considered a higher-resolution alternative, but with decreased throughput and significantly increased sequencing costs and analysis burden. With both methods there are also challenges with microbial lysis, DNA preparation, and taxonomic analysis. Specialized microbiome-focused protocols were developed to achieve strain-level taxonomic differentiation using a rapid, high throughput rRNA gene assay. The protocol integrates lysis and DNA preparation improvements with a unique high information content amplicon and associated novel database to enable taxonomic differentiation of closely related microbial strains.

Comprehensive variant detection in a human genome with highly accurate long reads

European Society of Human Genetics

2019

Abstract +

Introduction: Long-read sequencing has been applied successfully to assemble genomes and detect structural variants. However, due to high raw-read error rates (10-15%), it has remained difficult to call small variants from long reads. Recent improvements in library preparation and sequencing chemistry have increased length, accuracy, and throughput of PacBio circular consensus sequencing (CCS) reads, resulting in 10-20kb reads with average read quality above 99%. Materials and Methods: We sequenced a 12kb library from human reference sample HG002 to 18-fold coverage on the PacBio Sequel II System with three SMRT Cells 8M. The CCS algorithm was used to generate highly-accurate (average 99.8%) 11.4kb reads, which were mapped to the hg19 reference with pbmm2. We detected small variants using Google DeepVariant with a model trained for CCS and phased the variants using WhatsHap. Structural variants were detected with pbsv. Variant calls were evaluated against Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) benchmarks. Results: With these reads, DeepVariant achieves SNP and Indel F1 scores of 99.82% and 96.70% against the GIAB truth set, and pbsv achieves 95.94% recall on structural variants longer than 50bp. Using WhatsHap, small variants were phased into haplotype blocks with 105kb N50. The improved mappability of long reads allows us to align to and detect variants in medically relevant genes such as CYP2D6 and PMS2 that have proven "difficult-to-map" with short reads. Conclusions: These highly-accurate long reads combine the mappability and ability to detect structural variants of long reads with the accuracy and ability to detect small variants of short reads.

Structural variant detection in crops using low-fold coverage long-read sequencing

CROPS 2019

2019

Abstract +

Genomics studies have shown that the insertions, deletions, duplications, translocations, inversions, and tandem repeat expansions in the structural variant (SV) size range (>50 bp) contribute to the evolution of traits and often have significant associations with agronomically important phenotypes. However, most SVs are too small to detect with array comparative genomic hybridization and too large to reliably discover with short-read DNA sequencing. While de novo assembly is the most comprehensive way to identify variants in a genome, recent studies in human genomes show that PacBio SMRT Sequencing sensitively detects structural variants at low coverage. Here we present SV characterization in the major crop species Oryza sativa subsp. indica (rice) with low-fold coverage of long reads. In addition, we provide recommendations for sequencing and analysis for the application of this workflow to other important agricultural species.