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Friday, July 19, 2019

Resistance determinants and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1-encoding Klebsiella pneumoniae strain.

Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are emerging as a serious infectious disease challenge. These strains can accumulate many antibiotic resistance genes though horizontal transfer of genetic elements, those for ß-lactamases being of particular concern. Some ß-lactamases are active on a broad spectrum of ß-lactams including the last-resort carbapenems. The gene for the broad-spectrum and carbapenem-active metallo-ß-lactamase NDM-1 is rapidly spreading. We present the complete genome of Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC BAA-2146, the first U.S. isolate found to encode NDM-1, and describe its repertoire of antibiotic-resistance genes and mutations, including genes for eight ß-lactamases and 15 additional antibiotic-resistance enzymes. To elucidate the evolution of this…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Reconstructing complex regions of genomes using long-read sequencing technology.

Obtaining high-quality sequence continuity of complex regions of recent segmental duplication remains one of the major challenges of finishing genome assemblies. In the human and mouse genomes, this was achieved by targeting large-insert clones using costly and laborious capillary-based sequencing approaches. Sanger shotgun sequencing of clone inserts, however, has now been largely abandoned, leaving most of these regions unresolved in newer genome assemblies generated primarily by next-generation sequencing hybrid approaches. Here we show that it is possible to resolve regions that are complex in a genome-wide context but simple in isolation for a fraction of the time and cost of…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Completing bacterial genome assemblies: strategy and performance comparisons.

Determining the genomic sequences of microorganisms is the basis and prerequisite for understanding their biology and functional characterization. While the advent of low-cost, extremely high-throughput second-generation sequencing technologies and the parallel development of assembly algorithms have generated rapid and cost-effective genome assemblies, such assemblies are often unfinished, fragmented draft genomes as a result of short read lengths and long repeats present in multiple copies. Third-generation, PacBio sequencing technologies circumvented this problem by greatly increasing read length. Hybrid approaches including ALLPATHS-LG, PacBio corrected reads pipeline, SPAdes, and SSPACE-LongRead, and non-hybrid approaches-hierarchical genome-assembly process (HGAP) and PacBio corrected reads pipeline via self-correction-have…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Assembly and diploid architecture of an individual human genome via single-molecule technologies.

We present the first comprehensive analysis of a diploid human genome that combines single-molecule sequencing with single-molecule genome maps. Our hybrid assembly markedly improves upon the contiguity observed from traditional shotgun sequencing approaches, with scaffold N50 values approaching 30 Mb, and we identified complex structural variants (SVs) missed by other high-throughput approaches. Furthermore, by combining Illumina short-read data with long reads, we phased both single-nucleotide variants and SVs, generating haplotypes with over 99% consistency with previous trio-based studies. Our work shows that it is now possible to integrate single-molecule and high-throughput sequence data to generate de novo assembled genomes that…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Single-molecule sequencing (PacBio) of the Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A clone reveals the basis of multidrug resistance and adaptation to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit environment.

The multi-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone NRCS-A has recently been described as a major pathogen causing nosocomial, late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates worldwide. NRCS-A representatives exhibit an atypical antibiotic resistance profile. Here, the complete closed genome (chromosomal and plasmid sequences) of NRCS-A prototype strain CR01 and the draft genomes of three other clinical NRCS-A strains from Australia, Belgium and the United Kingdom are annotated and compared to available non-NRCS-A S. capitis genomes. Our goal was to delineate the uniqueness of the NRCS-A clone with respect to antibiotic resistance, virulence factors and mobile genetic elements. We identified 6 antimicrobial resistance genes,…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

PacBio but not Illumina technology can achieve fast, accurate and complete closure of the high GC, complex Burkholderia pseudomallei two-chromosome genome

Although PacBio third-generation sequencers have improved the read lengths of genome sequencing which facilitates the assembly of complete genomes, no study has reported success in using PacBio data alone to completely sequence a two-chromosome bacterial genome from a single library in a single run. Previous studies using earlier versions of sequencing chemistries have at most been able to finish bacterial genomes containing only one chromosome with de novo assembly. In this study, we compared the robustness of PacBio RS II, using one SMRT cell and the latest P6-C4 chemistry, with Illumina HiSeq 1500 in sequencing the genome of Burkholderia pseudomallei,…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

De novo assembly of genomes from long sequence reads reveals uncharted territories of Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

Propionibacterium freudenreichii is an industrially important bacterium granted the Generally Recognized as Safe (the GRAS) status, due to its long safe use in food bioprocesses. Despite the recognized role in the food industry and in the production of vitamin B12, as well as its documented health-promoting potential, P. freudenreichii remained poorly characterised at the genomic level. At present, only three complete genome sequences are available for the species.We used the PacBio RS II sequencing platform to generate complete genomes of 20 P. freudenreichii strains and compared them in detail. Comparative analyses revealed both sequence conservation and genome organisational diversity among…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

The Aegilops tauschii genome reveals multiple impacts of transposons.

Wheat is an important global crop with an extremely large and complex genome that contains more transposable elements (TEs) than any other known crop species. Here, we generated a chromosome-scale, high-quality reference genome of Aegilops tauschii, the donor of the wheat D genome, in which 92.5% sequences have been anchored to chromosomes. Using this assembly, we accurately characterized genic loci, gene expression, pseudogenes, methylation, recombination ratios, microRNAs and especially TEs on chromosomes. In addition to the discovery of a wave of very recent gene duplications, we detected that TEs occurred in about half of the genes, and found that such…

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Friday, July 19, 2019

Long-read sequencing and de novo genome assembly of Ammopiptanthus nanus, a desert shrub.

Ammopiptanthus nanus is a rare broad-leaved shrub that is found in the desert and arid regions of Central Asia. This plant species exhibits extremely high tolerance to drought and freezing and has been used in abiotic tolerance research in plants. As a relic of the tertiary period, A. nanus is of great significance to plant biogeographic research in the ancient Mediterranean region. Here, we report a draft genome assembly using the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) platform and gene annotation for A. nanus.A total of 64.72 Gb of raw PacBio sequel reads were generated from four 20-kb libraries. After filtering, 64.53 Gb…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis A6, a probiotic strain with high acid resistance ability.

Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis A6 (BAA6) (CGMCC No. 9273) was a probiotic strain isolated from the feces of a centenarian. Previous study showed that BAA6 had high acid resistance to low pH which is a critical factor influencing its healthy benefits. Elaborating the stress resistant mechanisms of bifidobacteria is important to extensively exploit this probiotic. Here, we reported the complete genome sequence of BAA6 that contains 1,958,651 bp encoding 1622 CDSs, 16 rRNA genes, 52 tRNA genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei L9, a new probiotic strain with high lactic acid-producing capacity.

Lactobaillus paracasei L9 (CGMCC No. 9800) is a new strain with probiotic properties originating from healthy human intestine. Previous studies evidenced that the strain regulates immune modulation and contributes to the production of high amounts of lactic acid. The genome of L. paracasei L9 contains a circular 3076,437-bp chromosome, encoding 3044 CDSs, 15 rRNA genes and 59 tRNA genes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Complete genome sequence of the heavy metal resistant bacterium Altererythrobacter atlanticus 26DY36(T), isolated from deep-sea sediment of the North Atlantic Mid-ocean ridge.

Altererythrobacter atlanticus 26DY36(T) (CGMCC 1.12411(T)=JCM 18865(T)) was isolated from the North Atlantic Mid-Ocean Ridge. The strain is resistant to heavy metals, such as Mn(2+) (200 mM), Co(2+) (2.0mM), Cu(2+) (1mM), Zn(2+) (1mM), Hg(2+) (0.1mM) and Cd(2+) (0.5mM). Here we describe the genome sequence and annotation, as well as the features of the organism. A. atlanticus 26DY36(T) harbors a chromosome (3,386,291 bp) and a circular plasmid (88,815 bp). The genome contains 3322 protein-coding genes (2483 with predicted functions), 47 tRNA genes and 6 rRNA genes. A. atlanticus 26DY36(T) encodes dozens of genes related to heavy metal resistance and has potential applications…

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Whole-genome sequence of Burkholderia sp. strain RPE67, a bacterial gut symbiont of the bean bug Riptortus pedestris.

Burkholderia sp. strain RPE67 is a bacterial symbiont isolated from a field-collected bean bug, Riptortus pedestris. To understand the genetic basis of the insect-microbe symbiosis, we performed whole-genome sequencing of the Burkholderia strain, revealing an 8.69-Mb genome consisting of three chromosomes and three plasmids. Copyright © 2014 Takeshita et al.

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Sunday, July 7, 2019

Comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger and metabolic engineering for citrate production.

Despite a long and successful history of citrate production in Aspergillus niger, the molecular mechanism of citrate accumulation is only partially understood. In this study, we used comparative genomics and transcriptome analysis of citrate-producing strains-namely, A. niger H915-1 (citrate titer: 157?g?L(-1)), A1 (117?g?L(-1)), and L2 (76?g?L(-1))-to gain a genome-wide view of the mechanism of citrate accumulation. Compared with A. niger A1 and L2, A. niger H915-1 contained 92 mutated genes, including a succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the ?-aminobutyric acid shunt pathway and an aconitase family protein involved in citrate synthesis. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis of A. niger H915-1 revealed that the transcription…

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